Minnesota Guidelines for Medication Administration in Schools - May 2005
(Updated: September 2005)
Support from the Literature with Selected Annotations for the Minnesota Medication Administration Guidelines for Schools.
Daley, B. (January 7, 1999). Schools eye new health regimen: Plan would let staff dispense medicine. Boston Globe, Metro/Region; B1.
Boston faced increasing numbers of students who require medications during the school day. There simply were not enough nurses or nursing hours to administer medication to 7,000 students. Many schools were applying for approval from the State Department of Health to use unlicensed persons for this task. Nurses argued that the schools were trying to save money, but nurses were trained to know what to look for (assessment) and the safety of students was being compromised. School officials said it was to lighten the nurses’ load to do other skilled activities.
Day, P. (2000). School nurses and contraception. Nursing Times, 96, 39-40.
The article written by Patricia Day promoted use of emergency contraception as helpful in reducing unwanted pregnancies, as well as helpful in educating young people regarding sexual issues. She supported the school setting, as appropriate, convenient, and ideal in students accessing preventative care for contraceptive services. Her article challenged health professionals to expand the role of school nurses to include contraceptive services and counseling.
Dean, B. & Barber N. (2001). Validity and Reliability of Observational Methods for Studying Mediation Administration Errors. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacists, 58(1): 54-59.
Delaware Health and Safety Manual. Delaware Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.doe.state.de.us/policy/regs%5Fmanual/800file.htm.
Delegation of School Health Services to Unlicensed Assistive Personnel. A Position Paper of the National Association of State School Nurse Consultants. (April 1995). Journal of School Nursing. 11,2: 17-19.
Delegation to unlicensed assistive personnel. (1998). Boise: Idaho State Board of Nursing.
Delegation to and supervision of unlicensed assistive personnel. (2000). Retrieved August 15, 2002, from http://pr.mo.gov/boards/nursing/Delegation.pdf.
Delisio, E. (2001). Schools are targets for prescription thieves. Education World: School Issues Article.
Because reports of abuse of the prescription drug Ritalin were increasing and schools were one of the primary distributors of the medication, administrators were taking more steps to safeguard prescriptions. Included in the article were recommendations for handling, storing, and dispensing prescriptions in schools.
Dengler, R. & Roberts H. (1996). Adolescents’ use of prescribed drugs and over-the-counter preparations. Journal of Public Health Medicine, 18, 4: 437-442.
Department of Education Tasmania. (April 8, 2002). Attachment 8 - The Administration of Medication. Retrieved June 20, 2002 from, http://www.education.tas.gov.au/equitystandards/drug-ed/tasguide/attach8.htm.
Devaney, B., Schochet, P., Thornton, C., Fasciano, N., & Gavin, A. (1997). Evaluating the effects of school health interventions on school performance. School Health Resource Services, 1-4.
This article provided a very general framework for evaluating the effects of health programs on education outcomes (no health outcomes as usually done). It discussed performance outcomes, data collection, and evaluation designs. It mentioned good databases to augment data collected from schools and discussed control groups and treatment groups (getting health inputs). The authors stated that school performance can be detected in three progressive categories: school behavior/attitudes, short-term education outcomes, and long-term education outcomes.
Dieterich, C. (1995). Health related services under IDEA that are medical in nature. West's Education Law Reporter, 100, 831-40.
Dispense medications with dose of caution: with few or no school nurses, districts add this burden to staff members, risk liability if mistake occurs. (1999). School Violence Alert, 5.
This news brief used an Ohio example to show how much school staff time goes into dispensing student medication and how varied reactions to students can be when they don’t follow school medication policies; a Florida example focused on giving secretaries two hours of training on dispensing medications. The article advised that school districts do what they can to prevent the possibility of medication error and design policies that are reasonable, state specific safeguards, address medication storage and security, and state who is allowed to dispense medication.
District of Columbia Department of Health. (1999). Municipal nursing regulations. Washington, D.C.: District of Columbia Department of Health.
District Not Required To Administer Medication. (1997). Managing School Business, 1.
The Court of Appeals ruled that parents of an elementary-school student were not entitled to an injunction requiring the school to administer the student’s medication. The school’s refusal came when the nurse determined the student’s dosage of medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was in excess of the recommended daily dosage. The parents filed suit, saying this was a violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act and 42 U.S.C., Rehabilitation Act. The court denied the suit as the school was not refusing to administer the medication based on disability, but on the basis of policy that prohibited administration of medication in excess of the recommended daily dose. The parents failed to show any violation of due process or interference with right to determine care of a student.
Division of Women & Children’s Services. (1995-96). South Carolina school health nurse survey. Columbia: South Carolina Department of Health & Environmental Control.
Dockrell, T. & Leever, J. (2000). Pharmacology: An overview of herbal medications with implications for the school nurse. Journal of School Nursing, 16, 53-8.
The administration of over-the-counter medications, including herbal medications, was on the rise and the medications were widely diversified. This article included details on various herbal medications and benefits and risks.
The manufacturers do not need to obtain FDA approval before marketing their products. People taking them need to be monitored for interactions with other herbal medications, prescription medications, or foods. There were no guidelines for the size of the person taking them or allergies.
Where the school nurse fits in is open to the opinion of individuals and their families. Guidelines were uncertain where the school stands on these issues.
Doctors Overuse Antibiotics In Children. (1998). The Journal of the American Medical Association. 279: 875-877, 881-882.
Dowshen, S. (2001). Over-the-Counter Cough and Cold Medicines May Be Toxic to Your Child. KidsHealth. Retrieved November 14, 2002 from http://www.healthinschools.org/parents/medication.htm.
Drug-Tough School Suspends Student For Sharing Tylenol. (March 1, 1992). New York Times. Dateline: Hamilton, Ohio.