Minnesota Guidelines for Medication Administration in Schools - May 2005
(Updated: September 2005)
Support from the Literature with Selected Annotations for the Minnesota Medication Administration Guidelines for Schools.
Gadomski, A. (October 5, 1994). Editorial: Rational Use of Over-the Counter Medications in Young Children. Journal of the American Medical Association. 272, 13: 1063-1064.
Gallagher, T.H., Waterman, A.D., Ebers, A.G., Fraser, V.J., & Levinson, W. (February 26, 2003). Journal of the American Medical Association. 289, 8: 1001-1007.
Gau, B., Horner, S., Chang, S., & Chen, Y. (2002). Asthma management efficacy of school nurses in Taiwan. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 39, 279-285.
This article described a small study designed to test the reliability of the Asthma Management Efficacy Scale (AMES) when used with school nurses. This scale was based on the Asthma Management Scale (AMS), which was originally designed for parents of children with asthma. Four main domains are identified in the AMES: (1) identifying a child’s asthma pattern, (2) performing asthma management steps at school, (3) providing appropriate medications; and (4) monitoring peak expiratory flow rates before and after treatments. Surveys of 60 school nurses in Taiwan found that nurses who had longer time in service and more experience with the peak flow meters had significantly higher efficacy scores on total AMES.
Garcia, J., Krankowski, T. & Jones, L. (October 1998). Collaborative Interventions for Assisting Students with Acquired Brain Injuries in School. American School Counselor Association, Professional School Counseling 2:1, 33-38.
Georgia Department of Education. (2001). School health nurse resource manual. Atlanta: Georgia Department of Education.
Giving Medications at School. (1996). School Health Alert Newsletter.
This article reviewed and suggested protocols for administration of medication at school. It was written in 1996, so no reference to any newer information was given. Increasing numbers of children received medication in school every day. Policies varied widely across schools, but suggestions for charting and safeguards were given. The article briefly mentioned standing orders for epinephrine.
Glazer, G. (September 28, 2001). Nursing Interventions Revisited. Nursing World. Retrieved October 16, 2001, from http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/tpclg/leg_11.htm.
Glazer, G. (June 23, 2000). What Makes Something A Nursing Activity or Task? Nursing World: OJIN: Legislative Column. Retrieved October 16, 2001, from http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/tpclg/leg_9.htm.
Glusberg, A. & Glusberg, M. (1998). Parent Involvement in Comprehensive School Health Programs: Survey Results. Chicago: National Parent Teacher Association.
Goldberg, E. (1990). School epi-pen policy that saves lives. [School Nursing Practice: Background Reading - Handout]. HealthyKids: The Key to Basics, Educational Planning for Students with Chronic Health Conditions. Newton, MA.
School staff members frequently experience helplessness and frustration because they have been advised that handling, administering, or even supervising students who are self-administering their medication is outside their contract duties. Members of the public school system in Quincy, Massachusetts, were concerned about students who were at risk for anaphylaxis, a potentially fatal allergic reaction to bee stings or food. They took it upon themselves to create a safer environment for students by training all staff in the recognition of an allergic reaction and the proper administration of the Epi-penÔ??? They were able to do this with the cooperation of the families and staff members. The school administration signed memoranda of understanding with the teacher’s association and custodian’s union in October 1989, making Epi-penÔ use a specific job duty and responsibility within the scope of employment with all staff members.
Goodmann, I. & Sheetz, A. (2000). The comprehensive school health manual of Massachusetts. Concord: Massachusetts Department of Education.
Government Report Downplays Stimulant Abuse in Schools. (2001). Reuters Medical News.
This editorial was critical of a government report about the use/misuse of stimulant drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder (ADHD/ADD). There have been drastic increases in the use of stimulants to treat ADHD. The author felt key factors were not considered, such as only 60% of schools have nurses nationwide and only about half of the states require written parental permission before dispensing medications. Six out of 10 schools used nurses to distribute medications to children.
Some lawmakers were concerned that physicians, parents, and schools were using medications to treat complex social problems.
Graff, J. & Ault, M. (1993). Guidelines for working with students having special health care needs. Journal of School Health 63, 335-338.
The article described some issues in meeting the needs of students with chronic, frequently complex health issues. It discussed the importance of staying up-to-date on the latest procedures and policies, individualized health plans (IEPs), and the roles of staff members and parents in facilitating a successful inclusive educational experience. Parents play a vital role as “experts” regarding their special needs children. Recommendations included board policy on communicating health care issues and ensuring appropriate training for staff members who are implementing aspects of health plans.
Gray, D., Reiswerg, J., & Golden, M. (1991). Diabetes care in schools: Benefits and pitfalls of Public Law 94-142. Diabetes Educator, 17, 33-6.
This article discussed Public Law 94-142 as it relates to students with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Blood glucose monitoring was given as a specific example. Some schools did not accommodate because of a lack of funds for school nurses, or lack of agreement about the applicability of Public Law 94-142, or the issue of liability. Indiana’s legal code was given as an example of a model that minimizes barriers to these services at school.
Gregory, E. (February 2000). Empowering Students on Medication for Asthma to be Active Participants in their Care: An Exploratory Study. Journal of School Nursing, 16, 1: 20-27.
The Growth in Dispensing Errors and Its Effects. (n.d.). KirbyLester Incorporated. Retrieved September 7, 1999, from http://www.kirbylester.com/disperr.html.
Guide to developing and evaluating medicine education programs and materials for children and adolescents. (October 5, 1998). The United States Pharmacopoeia Convention, Inc.
The U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP) formed an Ad Hoc Advisory Panel on Children and Medicines. Members of the panel found that children needed, wanted, and deserved to have information about medicines, few medicine education programs were evaluated, and they have not been based on what children want to know.
The panel developed 10 Guiding Principles for Teaching Children and Adolescents about Medicines. The principles were intended to encourage activities to help children become active participants in the process of using medicines to the best of their ability.
The four-part guide could be used to assess existing children’s and adolescents’ medicine education programs and materials or develop or revise such programs and materials. It presented the principles that provide the rationale for and guide activities and programs designed to help children develop into competent medicine users. It provided instructions, a checklist, and forms for evaluating existing medicine education programs and materials.
Guidelines and Procedures for Meeting the Specialized Physical Healthcare Needs of Pupils. (1990). Sacramento: California Department of Education.
Guidelines for the delineation of roles and responsibilities for the safe delivery of specialized health care in the educational setting. (1990). Reston: ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children.
Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma – Update on Selected Topics 2002. (June 2002). Maryland: NHLBI Health Information Network NIH Publication # 02-5075.
Guidelines for the nurse in the school setting. (2004). Chicago: Illinois Emergency Medical Services for Children.
Guidelines for School Health Programs to be Developed. (Summer 2000). Health, Mental Health, and Safety in Schools: FOCUS. School Health Resources for Pediatricians. Retrieved May 10, 2004, from http://www.schoolhealth.org/hmhs.htm.
Guidelines for school nurses on confidentiality of school health information. (2002). Retrieved December 6, 2004, from http://www.mainecshp.com/school_counseling/SHAC/DocumentationGuidelines.pdf.
Guttu, M. (2004). School Health Needs: The Special Provision: School Nurse Services, Executive Summary. North Carolina, Washington Regional Office.