Minnesota Guidelines for Medication Administration in Schools - May 2005
(Updated: September 2005)
Support from the Literature with Selected Annotations for the Minnesota Medication Administration Guidelines for Schools.
Kaaler, M. & Ravella, P. (July 2002). Staying on the Ethical High Ground with Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The Nurse Practitioner 27, 7: 38-42.
Kalispell school district policies. (n.d.). Retrieved July 26, 2004, from http://www.sd5.k12.mt.us/board/brd%20policy/3000/3416.htm.
Karch, A. & Karch, F. (2001). Practice errors. Let the user beware. American Journal of Nursing, 101, 25.
A college graduate student was brought to the Student Health Services pale, diaphoretic, confused, drowsy, and disoriented. She had taken three-five different over-the-counter medications containing acetaminophen, diphenhydramine, pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, and in combination were at the level of toxicity.
Karp, H. (2000). A day in the life of the school nurse. Parents Magazine, 75, 100.
The article described a day in the life of a school nurse in Fort Worth, Texas. It discussed the increase in medications over the years and shows the variety of children’s needs. The introductory paragraph stated the shortage of licensed school nurses.
Karpa, K.D. (September 3, 2001). Medication safety officer: A new breed of pharmacist. Retrieved June 11, 2002, from http://www.findarticles.com.cf_0/m3045/17_145/78575645/print.jhtml.
Keen, S. & Comer, L. (1995). Subcutaneous administration of adrenaline for anaphylaxis. Nursing Times, 91, 36-7.
This article was written from the perspective of community nurses working with schools that have students with severe allergies. The authors drew on the experience of one clinic helping 17 children with histories of anaphylaxis. They discussed how to make arrangements for the care of such student at school. Types of allergies and symptoms of anaphylaxis were discussed, as was administration of epinephrine. The conclusion of the report was that with careful instruction and first aid treatment, a child with the possibility of an allergic reaction could attend school and parents and teachers did not need to feel helpless in the face of this particular emergency.
Kent, J. (December 17, 1995). Program "an accident waiting to happen," throughout LaCrosse school district, secretaries dispensing medicine to children. LaCrosse Tribune.
A school district had school secretaries dispensing medications and this article talked about the 45 doses of medications one secretary handed out during a lunch hour, a time when school offices are very busy.
There were concerns for the safety of students and the responsibility and liability the secretaries and teachers were taking on. In this school district, the secretary and teachers were responsible for triage of illness and injury to determine when to call in the school nurse. The article also reviewed the training provided to secretaries and teachers and the knowledge and/or assumptions that parents make concerning medication and health issues in their school district.
Kentucky Administrative Regulations, 2:060. Kentucky Regulation for School Nurse Certification. (1980). Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.lrc.state.ky.us/kar/016/002/060.htm.
Kentucky Administrative Regulations, 4:020. School health services. (2001). Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.lrc.state.ky.us/kar/704/004/020.htm.
Kentucky Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Kentucky nursing laws (KRS Chapter 314): Nurse practice act. Louisville: Kentucky Board of Nursing.
Kentucky Board of Nursing. (2004). Advisory opinion statement, school nursing practice. Louisville: Kentucky Board of Nursing.
Kentucky Board of Nursing. (2003). Advisory opinion statement, roles of nurses in the supervision and delegation of nursing acts to unlicensed personnel. Louisville: Kentucky Board of Nursing.
Kentucky Board of Nursing. (2002). Advisory opinion statement, roles of nurses in the administration of PRN medication and placebos. Louisville: Kentucky Board of Nursing.
Kentucky Board of Nursing. (2001). Advisory opinion statement, roles of nurses in the administration of medication via various routes. Louisville: Kentucky Board of Nursing.
Kentucky Board of Nursing. (2001). Scope of practice determination guidelines. Louisville: Kentucky Board of Nursing.
Kentucky Department of Education. (2004). Health services reference
Kentucky Department of Education.
Kentucky Revised Statute 156.501 Student health services – Responsibilities of Department of Education and Department for Public Health – Filling of position – Funding. (2002). Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://lrc.ky.gov/krs/156%2D00/501.pdf.
Kentucky Revised Statute 156.502, Health services in school setting –Designated provider – Liability protection. (2002). Retrieved August 6, 2002, from http://lrc.ky.gov/krs/156%2D00/502.pdf.
Kessler, S. (March 1998). More on the Role of the School in ADHD. Pediatric Annuals. 27, 3: 118 and 120.
Kids sometimes get wrong meds at school. (March 14, 2002). WCCO Channel 4000.
This report focused on the unreliability of medication administration in Cleveland schools, where children were faking taking medications, there was no system to record medication administration, etc. It suggested that parents become knowledgeable about how medications are given.
Kids Use of Prescription Drugs Outpaces Seniors. (Sepber 19, 2002). Associated Press.
Kohn, L. T., Corrigan, J. M., & Donaldson, M. S. (December 2000). To err is human: building a safer health system. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Washington DC.
Koenning, G.M., Todaro, A., Benjamin, J. E., Curry, M.R., Spraul, G.E., & Mayer, M. (April 1995). Health Services Delivery to Students with Special Health Care Needs in Texas Public Schools. Journal of School Health. 65, 4: 119-123.
Kogan, M.D., Pappas, G., Yu, S.M., & Kotelchuck, M. (October 5, 1994). Over-the-counter Medication Use Among US Preschool-age Children. Journal of the American Medical Association. 272, 13: 1025-1030.
Kolbe, L. J. (Autumn 2002). Education Reform: and the goals of modern school health programs. The State Education Standard. Pg. 4-10.
Comprehensive school health programs were supported in this article as being a critical part of the national push for school reform in No Child Left Behind. Four goals for students were discussed: improving health knowledge, attitudes, and skills; improving health behaviors and health outcomes; improving educational outcomes; and improving social outcomes. The article offered arguments in each of these goals to support the inclusion of the curriculum and health services in the ongoing development of standards. The author did not discuss costs other than in terms of impact on personal and social outcomes of not having these school health components included.
Kolbe L. J., Kann L., & Brener N. D. (2001). Overview and Summary of Findings: School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000. The Journal of School Health, 71, 253-259.
Kozlowski, J. C. (2002). Prescription medication policies prompt ADA claims. Parks and Recreation. Retrieved June 11, 2002, from http://www.findarticles.com/ct_01m1145_37782743094/print.jhtml.
This article described two similar cases in which parents sued their child’s school district for refusing to allow the school nurse to administer medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during school hours. In each case, the school district had a policy in place that prevented the administration of any medication at a dose higher than recommend by the Physicians Desk Reference. The parents felt that the school district’s policy violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The court system, however, ruled that because the schools applied their policies uniformly to all students, they were not violating the ADA. Giving the higher dosage would have imposed unreasonable financial cost or administrative burden on the schools.
Kuersten, J. (March 1999). Healthy Young Minds: Rx for children’s emotional and mental health. National PTA: Out Children. Retrieved February 26, 2003, from http://www.pta.org/parentinvolvement/helpchild/hc_oc_healthy_minds.asp
Kurtz, S. (March 2002). Treating ADHD in School Settings. School Nurse News. 28-33.