Minnesota Guidelines for Medication Administration in Schools - May 2005
(Updated: September 2005)
Support from the Literature with Selected Annotations for the Minnesota Medication Administration Guidelines for Schools.
Lanfear, J.H. & Rashid, C. (1998). Who cares for students with epilepsy in mainstream education? Seizure. British Epilepsy Association. 7: 189-192.
Lavin, A., Shapiro, G. & Weill, K. (March 2003). Creating an
agenda for school-based health
promotion: A review of selected reports. Boston: Harvard School health Education
Project, Department of Health and Social Behavior, Harvard School of Public Health.
This article was a synthesis of 25 different reports from 1989-91 that address the interconnectedness of children’s health and education. This article focused on general public health issues affecting children’s success in school and their ability to learn. Two age groups of particular concern were early childhood and adolescents. A few of the issues discussed in this article include violence, hunger, substance abuse, too early pregnancy, depression, and hopelessness. This article suggested that the best way to tackle these problems is through a comprehensive, integrated approach, focusing efforts through schools.
The Law, Schools, and Your Child with Diabetes. (February 17, 2002). Children with Diabetes. Retrieved June 20, 2002, from http://www.childrenwithdiabetes.com/d_0q_600.htm.
Lawrence, G. (1996). Medication administration in schools: How can we keep children safe? Colorado Nurse, June, 28.
Lear, J. (November 11, 2002). Improving safety and quality in medication management in schools. 2002 American Public Health Association Conference.
Representing the Center for Health and Health Care in Schools in a 2002 PowerPoint presentation at the American Public Health Association conference, the authors reported on common health problems of school-age children, policies and practices related to medication administration, legal requirements, and select research reports (McCarthy et al., To Err is Human, and Crossing the Quality Chasm).
For example, they stated that 64% of states and 94% of school districts had requirements regarding school administration of medications. The McCarthy et al. study found that 5.6% of students required medications at school, 98% report having medication guidelines, and 48.5% of responding nurses reported a medication error in the past year.
Leape, L., Bates, D., Cullen, D., Cooper, J., Demonaco, H., Gallivan, T., Hallisey R., Ives, J., Laird, N., Laffel, G., Nemeskal, R., Petersen, L., Porter, K., Servi, D., Shea, B., Samll, S., Sweitzer, B., Thompson, T., & Vander Viet, M. (July 5, 1995). Systems Analysis of Adverse Drug Events. Journal of the American Medical Association. 274, 1: 35-43.
Lesar, T.D. et al. (January 22, 1997). Medication Errors. Journal of the American Medical Association. 277: 312.
Levine, S., Cohen, M., Blanchard, N., Fredico, F, Magelli, M., Lomax, C., Greiner, G., Poole, R., Lee, C., & Lesko, A. (2001). Guidelines for preventing medication errors in pediatrics. The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 6:426-442.
Lee, G.M., Friedman J.F., Ross-Degnan, D. et al. (2003). Misconceptions about colds and predictors of health services utilization. Pediatrics. 111, 2: 231-236.
Levy, S. (February 18, 2002). Self-care: NCPIE launches campaign to promote safe OTC use. Patient Care, Drug Topics Archive: 4:45.
The NCPIE was promoting a public information campaign about the safe uses of over-the-counter (OTC) medications bearing the new “drug facts” label. The campaign was designed to support the use of the label and encourage consumers to read the information and seek information from health care professionals if they have questions. Research has shown that a significant number of U.S. citizens don’t know the active ingredients of OTC medications that they take routinely, do not read the labels, and take more and more often than recommended. Consumers should read labels and be concerned about possible interactions with other medications and dietary supplements.
Lewis, E. (1999). Setting up a school asthma clinic: Asthma in teenagers is often poorly controlled, largely due to non-compliance with medication. The Professional Nurse, 14, 825.
This article provided an overview of the effectiveness of setting up in-school asthma clinics, specifically to assist in the management of asthma in adolescents. Asthma clinics would aim “to provide education, allowing the adolescent to take control of his or her asthma management.” The first trial clinic described in this article found a positive outcome for students in the first year with a dramatic reduction in daily asthma problems noted by school staff. Educating students and developing plans to individualize therapy, given the social and emotional impact of the adolescent years, was important in the process.
Lishner, K. & Busch, K. (1994). Safe delivery of medications to children in summer camps. Pediatric Nursing 20, 249-253.
When this article was published (1994), 5 million children attended summer camp annually in the United States. In this study, researchers sent questionnaires to 100 summer camps and received responses from 53%. Registered nurses were reported to be responsible for the administration of medications to campers by 47.2% of the respondents. Types of medications most often given at camp were prescription medications and over-the-counter medications. The problems identified included incomplete information about medications brought from home, medication “holidays,” and foreign medications. The findings of this study indicated a need for improved communication about medications among all the parties involved to ensure continuity of health care. The authors said that pediatric nurses should play a role in education and communication for safe and pleasurable summer camp environments for children.
Los Angeles Unified School District. (2003). Class description: School physician, school physician – bilingual Spanish. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Unified School District.
Louisiana State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education & Louisiana State Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Rule title 28 education: The administration of mediation in Louisiana public schools. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education & Louisiana State Board of Nursing.
Louisiana State Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Delegation decision-making process: Unlicensed nursing personnel. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Board of Nursing.
Louisiana State Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Delegation decision-making process: Licensed practical nurse. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Board of Nursing.
Louisiana State Board of Nursing. (1993). Declaratory statement regarding nursing accountability and/or responsibility for patient care assignments and nursing care delivery. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Board of Nursing.
Louisiana Statutes RS 37:913 (14) (f) and Administrative Rules LAC 46 XLVII.3703. (n.d.). Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Board of Nursing.
LPN scope of practice. (n.d.). Retrieved August 15, 2002, from http://pr.mo.gov/boards/nursing/lpnsco1.pdf.
Lwebuga-Mukasa, J. & Dunn-Georgiou, E. (2002). A school-based asthma intervention program In the Buffalo, New York, schools. The Journal of School Health, 72, 27-32.
This article included both qualitative and quantitative research data on an asthma intervention that required students with asthma to have their private health care providers write and send the school asthma action plans. The plans proved effective to reduce asthma episodes at all participating schools where baselines were established. Students and families also received two hours of education about asthma, covering signs, triggers, medications, etc. There was also a substantial increase in prescriptions for anti-inflammatory medications at two study sites.