Minnesota Guidelines for Medication Administration in Schools - May 2005

(Updated: September 2005)

Maternal and Child Health Section graphic of an outline of a parent with a child in the middle of the outline of Minnesota.



Support from the Literature with Selected Annotations for the Minnesota Medication Administration Guidelines for Schools.

Naimi, T.S., Smith, K.E., Besser, J., Lynfield, R., and the MMA Antimicrobial Prescribing Practice Task Force. (April 2001). Antimicrobial Resistance and Judicious Antimicrobial Use in Minnesota and the United States. Minnesota Medical Association. 84, 4: 27-31.

National Association of School Boards of Education. Administration of Medication at School. Education Issues Policy Update, Vol. 11,14.

National Association of School Boards of Education. Healthy Schools Network, About the Network. Retrieved June 12, 2002, from http://www.nasbe.org/HealthySchools/Network/Network.html.

National Association of School Nurses, Inc. (2004). Delegation of care in the school setting. Issue Brief: School health nursing services role in health care. Retrieved from http://www.nasn.org/briefs/2004briefdelegation.pdf.

National Association of School Nurses, Inc. (Revised November 2003). Position Statement: School Nurse Supervision/Evaluation. Retrieved November 2, 2004, from http://www.nasn.org/positions/supervision.htm.

National Association of School Nurses. (2003). Position statement: Individualized health care plans. Retrieved November 23, 2004, from http://www.nasn.org/positions/careplans.htm.

National Association of School Nurses. (2003). Position statement: Role of the school nurse caring for a student requiring rectal medication for seizures. Retrieved November 23, 2004, from http://www.nasn.org/positions/rectalmeds.htm.

National Association of School Nurses. (2003). Substance use and abuse: Issue brief, school health nursing services role in health care. Castle Rock: National Association of School Nurses, Inc.

National Association of School Nurses. (2002). Role of the school nurse. Issue Brief: School health nursing services role in health care. Retrieved from http://www.nassn.org/briefs/200wbriefrole.pdf.

National Association of School Nurses. (2002). Position statement: Asthma management in the school setting. Castle Rock: National Association of School Nurses, Inc.

This article described the prevalence of asthma in schools and the role of school nurses and staff members in the management of it. Included was a description of the condition, asthma triggers, the impact on the quality of life for children with asthma, and a statement of the beliefs held by the National Association of School Nurses regarding asthma in students, including beliefs about the role of the school nurse in caring for and managing asthma in students.

National Association of School Nurses. (2001). Blood sugar monitoring in the school setting. Castle Rock: National Association of School Nurses.

National Association of School Nurses. (2001). Position statement: Alternative medicine use in the school setting. Castle Rock: National Association of School Nurses, Inc.

This position statement of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) gave a detailed description of alternative and complementary medicine, as well as safety guidelines. School districts and school nurses were advised to consult or investigate risk-management principles and state laws to guide development of policies. The NASN recommended that school districts have written policy and procedures that focus on student safety and are consistent with state laws, safe nursing practices, and scientific information.

National Association of School Nurses. (2001). Position statement: Controlled substances in the school setting. Retrieved November 23, 2004, from http://www.nasn.org/positions/controlled.htm.

This 2001 statement of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) included history and description of the topic, a definition of controlled substances, major issues confronting the school nurse regarding administration of controlled substances, and guidelines constituting the organization’s position.

NASN directed school nurses or their designees to administer controlled substances under the following guidelines: (1) state mandates, policies, and guidelines and district policies and procedures related to delegation of the administration of controlled substances are adhered to, (2) the controlled substances are in a properly labeled prescription container, (3) the parent/guardian must request in writing that the medication be given at school, (4) the school nurse, based on nursing assessment, determines if the controlled substance should be given at school, (5) the school nurse trains, supervises, and evaluates unlicensed persons who are designated to administer medication in the nurse’s absence according to state mandates, policies, and guidelines and policies and procedures related to delegation, (6) the administration of the controlled substance in no way violates nursing or standing orders, (7) the school nurse is aware of and has current reliable information regarding the safe use of the medication, and the medication is stored in a locked cabinet, and (8) procedures are in place for receipt, administration, and accountability for medications.

National Association of School Nurses. (2001). Position statement: Research medications in the school setting. Castle Rock: National Association of School Nurses, Inc.

National Association of School Nurses. (2001). Position statement: School nurse role in care and management of the child with diabetes in the school setting. Retrieved November 23, 2004, from http://www.nasn.org/positions/diabetes.htm.

This is the perspective of the National Association of School Nurses on the importance of medically serving students with diabetes. To manage diabetes, a goal is to maintain blood glucose levels in the near-normal range. This requires sufficient medical management on the part of the student and the school nurse, as well as provision by the school of appropriate access to a variety of resources (i.e., supplies, a place to test blood, medication, snacks, etc.). Special accommodations may need to be made for students. Knowledgeable personnel must be available at all times during school and extracurricular activities. Managing diabetes is most effective when the entire school community is involved and aware. It is the school’s responsibility to provide adequate resources and support.

National Association of School Nurses. (2001). School nurse submission guidelines: Ohio standards. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ode.state.oh.us/teaching-profession/teacher/educator_preparation/Word/School_nurse_submission_guidelines_8_03.doc.

National Association of School Nurses. (2000). Position statement: Epinephrine use in life-threatening emergencies. Retrieved November 23, 2004, from http://www.nasn.org/positions/Epinephrine.htm.

Due to an increase of students and staff with life-threatening allergies, this statement advocated the development of medication and emergency policies to govern easy access and correct use of epinephrine. The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) recommended that self-managed administration be evaluated on an individual basis by the school nurse, parent, health care provider, and student. NASN also recommended written permission by parent and health care provider for self-medication and written health care plans that are monitored for all students prescribed epinephrine. It also pointed to the need for additional staff training in recognition of allergic reactions and the need for school districts to establish direction for episodes in students/staff with no previous history of allergies.

National Association of School Nurses. (November 1999). Helping shape legislation in Ohio: school nurses have a voice. NASN Newsletter, 14, 5.

Nurses had a key role in shaping new Ohio laws to help students with asthma. This brief commentary advises how to collaborate with other agencies to promote legislation.

National Association of School Nurses. (1999). Position statement: The use of asthma inhalers in the school setting. Retrieved November 23, 2004, from http://www.nasn.org/positions/inhalers.htm.

National Association of School Nurses. (1997). Delegation of Nursing Care in the School Setting: A Guide for Administrators. Castle Rock: National Association of School Nurses, Inc.

National Association of School Nurses. (1993, 1997, 2003). Position statement: Medication administration in the school setting. Castle Rock: National Association of School Nurses, Inc.

This position statement on medication administration in the school setting addressed major issues that school nurses face with the increase in the use of medications by students. It discussed the role of the school nurse and why the nurse is the best qualified person to administer medication and offered guidelines for safe administration of medications by school nurses in the school setting.

National Association of School Nurses. (1994, 1995, 2002). Delegation position statement. Castle Rock: National Association of School Nurses, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.nasn.org/positions/delegation.htm.

National Association of State School Nurse Consultants, National Association of School Nurses & the National Assembly for School-Based Health Care. (2004). HIPAA and Schools: Fact Sheet. August. Kent: Author.

National Association of State School Nurse Consultants. (1995). Position paper on delegation of school health services to unlicensed assistive personnel. Kent: National Association of State School Nurse Consultants.

National Association of State School Nurse Consultants. (1995). Position paper: Delegation of school health services to unlicensed assistive personnel. Journal of School Nursing 11, 17-19.

This position paper developed by the National Association of State School Nurse Consultants dealt with safe health care services in schools, safe delegation to and supervision of UAPs, and sound professional registered nurse judgment regarding health services in schools. It strongly supported the role of the registered nurse.

National Center for Health Education. (2002). What Children Need to Know. Grades k-2, Grades 3-5, and Grades 6-8. New York, NY.

National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. (1998-2003).
About NCC MERP. Retrieved 3-25-2003 from http://www.nccmerp.org/aboutnccmerp.htm.

National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. (1999). Council Recommends Medication Dispensing Methods to Prevent Errors From Reaching Patients.

This article discussed recommendations from the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention for pharmacists to implement in the medication dispensing process to help reduce the incidence of errors. These recommendations primarily involved increased checking of the name, dose, and who the medication is to be given to by any person involved in medication disbursement in hospitals, nursing homes, home health care, and retail pharmacies. Counseling patients and maintaining a patient profile will help ensure proper use, as well as detect errors or inappropriate medication use. High-risk medications, especially those with similar names or appearance to other medications, should receive special attention.

National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. (1999). National Coordinating Council Announces Medication Administration Recommendations to Prevent Errors.

National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. (1998). NCC
MERP Taxonomy of Medication Errors
. Office of the Secretariat, United States
Pharmacopeia. 1-19.

National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. (March 15, 1999). New Medication Errors Taxonomy Released. Retrieved March 25, 2003, from http://www.nccmerp.org/rel_990315.htm.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing Inc. (1991). Nursing care in the school setting: Regulatory implications. Chicago: National Council of State Boards of Nursing Inc.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing Inc. (1990). Concept paper on delegation. Chicago: National Council of State Boards of Nursing Inc.

National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, et al. (2003). Helping the Student with Diabetes Succeed. A guide for school personnel. NIH Publication # 03-5217. Retrieved from http://www.ndep.nih.gov.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (1997) Delegation Resource folder. Chicago: Author.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (1997). Delegation: Decision-making grid. Chicago: National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (1997). Role development: Critical components of delegation curriculum outline. Chicago: National Council of the State Boards of Nursing, Inc.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (1997). Delegation Decision-making Tree. Chicago: National Council of the State Boards of Nursing, Inc.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (1997). The Rive Rights of Delegation. Chicago: National Council of the State Boards of Nursing, Inc.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (1997). Introduction to the Delegation Folder. Chicago: National Council of the State Boards of Nursing, Inc.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (1997). Glossary – Delegation Terminology. Chicago: National Council of the State Boards of Nursing, Inc.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc, Unlicensed Assistive Personnel Task Force. (October 1998). The Continuum of Care: A Regulatory Perspective A Resource Paper for Regulatory Agencies. Chicago National Council of State Boards of Nursing Inc.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc (1995). Delegation: Concepts and Decision-making Process. Chicago: National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc.

The National Council of State Boards of Nursing published this position paper to provide a resource for boards of nursing, health policy makers, and health care providers on delegation and the roles of licensed and unlicensed health care workers. It emphasized and clarified the responsibility of boards of nursing for the regulation of nursing, including nursing tasks performed by unlicensed health care workers, and the responsibility of licensed nurses to delegate nursing tasks in accord with their legal scopes of practice. It provided a decision-making tool that could be used in clinical and administrative settings to guide the process of delegation. The paper described the accountability of each person involved in the delegation process and potential liability if competent, safe care is not provided.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing. (April 1998). Nursing Regulation. Chicago:
National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing. (1995). Statement on the nursing activities of unlicensed persons. Chicago: National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc.

National Diabetes Education Program, National Institutes of Health & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2003). Helping the student with diabetes succeed: a guide for school personnel. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health.

National Education Association (1996). Providing safe health care: the role of educational support personnel. Washington DC: Author.

Prepared by the National Education Association (NEA), this is a comprehensive document that addresses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements for providing school health services and a pro-active approach for educational support personnel to use to ensure that they are properly trained and legally protected when assigned duties relating to the health needs of students. Included were a glossary, resources, bibliography, and appendix.

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; National Asthma Education and Prevention Program; School Education subcommittee; National School Boards Association; American School Health Association; Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network; American Diabetes Association; & Epilepsy foundation of America. (2003). Students with chronic illnesses: Guidance for families, schools, and Students. 1-2. Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/lung/asthma/guidfam.pdf.

National Institute of Mental Health. (2001). Help your child take medication safely. Bethesda: National Institute of Mental Health.

National Institutes of Health National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. (2002). Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma: Update on selected topics 2002. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health.

National School Boards Association. (n.d.). School governance. Retrieved February 27, 2003, from http://www.nsba.org/site/page.asp?TRACKID=&CID=121&DID=8799.

National School Boards Association. (September 4, 2001). New guidelines advise schools on dealing with students with food allergies. School Board News. Retrieved June 20, 2002, from http://www.nsba.org/sbn/01-sep/090401-7.htm.

National School Boards Association. (1991-91). School Health: Helping Children Learn.
(Author).

National State School Nurse Consultants. (April 2000). Delegation of School Health Services. Ohio. Retrieved March 2, 2003, from http://207.28.33.2/swp/tadkins/nassnc/NASSNC_del-unlic.html.

National PTA. (n.d.). Parent Involvement in Comprehensive School Health Programs: Survey Results Findings Part C. Retrieved June 12, 2002, from http://www.pta.org/programs/cshreport/5c.htm.

Nebraska Department of Health. (1994). Guidelines: School health services in Nebraska. Lincoln: Nebraska Department of Health.

Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services Regulation and Licensure. (1999). Medication provision in the schools by school staff members according to the medication aide act: Frequently asked questions and answers. Lincoln: Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services Regulation and Licensure.

The Need for Pediatric Drug Tests. (October 14, 2002). New York Times.

Needham, N. (October 1994). What if you make a mistake? National Education Association (NEA) Today. Washington DC: National Education Association, p 4-5.

This article was written from the perspective of the education professional with regards to providing health care in a school setting. The article was unclear about delegation of tasks from a registered nurse. It pointed out that minimal training of unlicensed assistive personnel is a problem and that the delegation may be a violation of the Nurse Practice Act. The article provided tips for negotiating contracts to prevent assignment of some duties or ensuring training is in place. It briefly discussed the increased need for health service in a school and how school boards may respond to this need.

Nevada Department of Education. (n.d.). School health, safety, & nutrition team. Retrieved August 21, 2002, from http://www.doe.nv.gov/hlthsaf/.

Nevada Department of Education. (n.d.). Special endorsement to serve as a school nurse. Retrieved August 21, 2002, from http://www.doe.nv.gov/licensure/moreinfo/licend/special/schoolnurse.html.

Nevada State Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Chapter 632: Nursing. Retrieved August 21, 2002, from http://www.leg.state.nv.us/NAC/NAC-632.html.

Nevada State Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Delegation by registered nurses. Retrieved August 21, 2002, from http://www.nursingboard.state.nv.us/.

Nevada State Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Nursing practice decisions. Retrieved August 21, 2002, from http://www.nursingboard.state.nv.us/pinfo/pracdecs.htm.

Nevada State Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Scope of practice. Retrieved August 21, 2002, from http://www.nursingboard.state.nv.us/pinfo/detrscop.htm.

New England in Brief / Boston: New Drug Policy Urged for Schools. (February 1, 2002). Boston Globe. Metro/Regional Section, B2.

New Hampshire State Department of Education. (2002). School health resource manual.
Concord: New Hampshire State Department of Education.

New Jersey Department of Education. (2001). School health services guidelines. Retrieved August 5, 2004, from http://www.state.nj.us/njded/parents/shg.pdf.

New Jersey Department of Education. (2004). Chapter 16: programs to support student development. Retrieved August 5, 2004, from http://www.njssna.org/AdminCode.htm.

New law bars schools from recommending medication. (2001). The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 17, 3.

A new Connecticut law prohibited teachers, counselors, and other school personnel from recommending psychiatric drugs for school children. Staff members would be able to recommend that a child be evaluated “by an appropriate practitioner.” The law also said that a parent’s refusal to place a child on a psychotropic drug shall not, in and of itself, constitute grounds for the DCF to take a child into custody.

New Mexico nurse practice act. (2001). Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.nmcpr.state.nm.us/nmac/parts/title16/16.012.0002.htm.

New Mexico Occupational and Professional Licensing, Nursing and Healthcare Related Providers, Title 16, Chapter 12, Part 2. (n.d). Sante Fe: New Mexico Administrative Code.

New Mexico State Board of Education and State Department of Education. (n.d). Regulations and Policies, New Mexico State Statutes 22 and 22A.

New Mexico State Board of Education and State Department of Education. (n.d).
New Mexico Administrative Code 6NMAC and 6NMAC3.2.

New Mexico State Department of Education. (2001). New Mexico school health manual. Sante Fe: New Mexico State Department of Education.

New York State Consolidated Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2002, from http://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/?cl=30&a=43.

New York State Department of Education. (n.d.). Commissioner’s regulations, part 64. Retrieved August 23, 2004, from http://www.op.nysed.gov/part64.htm.

New York State Department of Education. (n.d.). Non-patient specific standing order and protocol guidelines. Retrieved August 23, 2004, from http://www.op.nysed.gov/immunguide.htm.

New York State Department of Education. (n.d.). Use of epinephrine auto-injector devices in the school setting. Retrieved August 23, 2004, from http://www.op.nysed.gov/nurse-epipen.htm.

New York State Department of Education & The University of the State of New York. (2001). Non-patient specific immunizations and anaphylaxis. Albany: New York State Department of Education/The University of the State of New York.

New York State Department of Education & The University of the State of New York. (1995). The provision of nursing tasks and health-related activities in the school setting for students with special health care needs. Albany: New York State Department of Education & The University of the State of New York.

New York State Department of Education & The University of the State of New York. (2002). Administration of Medication in the School Setting: Guidelines. Albany: New York State Department of Education & The University of the State of New York.

New York State nurse practice act. (n.d.). Retrieved August 23, 2004, from http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/sss/Laws-Regs/Health_Services/Nurse_Practice_Act-full.htm.

News: School Health Services, 15(1). (2004). Des Moines: Iowa School Health Services, Iowa Department of Education, School Health Program.

News: School Health Services, 18(1). (2001). Des Moines: Iowa School Health Services, Iowa Department of Education, School Health Program.

Nichols, P. (1999). Memorandum: School health services delivery. Lansing: State of Michigan, Department of Education.

Niederberger, M. (2002). Wanted: School nurses, with more students on medications and increasing diagnoses of asthma and diabetes, some believe it’s time districts hired additional medical staff. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.

This article outlined the growing challenges faced by school nurses with increasing workloads. Larger student bodies, increased medication administration, and increased paperwork made it difficult for school nurses to perform their functions. Mainstreaming special needs students added another dimension to their work.

North Dakota Board of Nursing. (n.d.). School nursing questions & answers. Retrieved December 6, 2004, from www.ndbon.org/education/default_sub14.html.

North Carolina Administrative Code, Title 21 Occupational Licensing Boards, Chapter 36, Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/Forms/NCAdminCode.pdf.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Activities outside the scope of nursing practice for RN or LPN. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/prac-outscope.asp.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Activities within the scope of practice for the RN or LPN. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/prac-inscope.asp.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Continued competence. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/prac-contcomp.asp.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Decision tree for RN/LPN delegation to UAP. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/forms/DecisionTree.pdf.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). LPN Interpretative Statements. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/prac-lpnistate.asp.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). NAII Interpretative Statements. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/prac-naiiistate.asp.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). None-nursing activities that may be performed by an RN or LPN. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/prac-nonnurse.asp.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Nurse aide I tasks. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from
http://www.ncbon.com/prac-naitasks.asp.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Nurse aide II tasks. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from
http://www.ncbon.com/prac-naiitasks.asp.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Nurse aide II tasks performed by nurse aide I personnel. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/prac-naiibyi.asp.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). RN Interpretative Statements. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/prac-rnistate.asp.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Special notice regarding category II activities. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/prac-specnotice.asp.

North Carolina Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Tasks to be delegated by the RN to nurse aide IIs who are also EMT-intermediates or paramedics. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/prac-rntasks.asp.

North Carolina framework for delegation decision-making by the licensed nurse. (2000). Retrieved August 10, 2004, from http://www.ncbon.com/forms/Framework%20for%20Delegation%20Decision-Making.pdf.

North Carolina General Assembly General Statutes 115C-307. (n.d.). Retrieved August 10, 2004, from http://www.ncga.state.nc.us/Statutes/GeneralStatutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_115C/GS_115C-307.html.

North Carolina school nurse to student ratio by local education agency. (2002-3). Raleigh: North Carolina Division of Public Health, Department of Human Services, Public Schools of North Carolina, & Department of Public Instruction.

Northcott, H.C. & Bachysky, J.A. (1993). Concurrent Utilization of Chiropractic, Prescription Medicines, Nonprescription Medicines and Alternative Health Care. Social Science
Medicine. 37
, 3: 431-435.

North Dakota Board of Nursing. (n.d.). School nursing Questions& Answers. Retrieved December 6, 2004, from http://www.ndbon.org/education/default_sub14.html.

North Dakota Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Medication administration by medication assistant. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ndbon.org/unlicensed/medication_admin.html.

North Dakota Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Medication administration FAQ. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ndbon.org/unlicensed/medication_assistant_faq.html.

North Dakota Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Nursing standards and delegation: A guide to North Dakota board of nursing rules. Bismarck: North Dakota Board of Nursing.

North Dakota Board of Nursing. (2001). Practice parameters-students & licensed nurses. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ndbon.org/policies/default_sub59.html.

North Dakota Board of Nursing. (1999). Decision making model for scope of practice. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ndbon.org/policies/default_sub54.html.

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. (2004). 2004-2005 instructional manual for completing PER02 personnel forms for positions which do not require a teaching license. Bismarck: State of North Dakota.

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. (2002). Connecting the links between health & academics. Bismarck: North Dakota Department of Public Instruction.

Nurse Practice Act Title 33: Chapter 21 – Nurses. (n.d.). Retrieved August 21, 2002, from http://legisweb.state.wy.us/statutes/titles/title33/chapter21.htm.

Nykamp, D. (1995). OTC medication use in children presents opportunities for pharmacist intervention and involvement. American Pharmacy NS35, 11-29.

This continuing education unit for pharmacists focused on the treatment of pediatric illnesses that are commonly treated with nonprescription products. Parents and caretakers frequently seek the advice of a pharmacist and need to be counseled on the use of these products. The author also stated that the pharmacist should be able to recognize the clinical presentation of common pediatric illnesses and should be able to make recommendations for treatment and for referral to a physician, where appropriate.

In particular, the unit covered dosage determination and administration guidelines in detail, when to call the doctor, and common pediatric problems (respiratory illnesses, congestion, constipation, sunscreens, fever and pain, pinworm infestation, and diarrhea).

 

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