Minnesota Guidelines for Medication Administration in Schools - May 2005
(Updated: September 2005)
Support from the Literature with Selected Annotations for the Minnesota Medication Administration Guidelines for Schools.
Safer, D.J. & Malvern, M. (September 2000). Stimulant Treatment in Maryland Public Schools. Pediatrics. 106, 3: 533-538.
Salerno, L. (November 21, 1996). School Policy on Medications Can Be A Pain. Omaha World Herald. Youth Section: 35.
Salmon, M. (1994). School (health) nursing in the era of health care reform: What is the outlook? Journal of School Health 64, 137-140.
This article examined the then-current status (1994) and future of school nursing, including new paradigms for school health. The author concluded by saying there were great opportunities for school health nurses to contribute to school health services and to work with policymakers and administrators to enhance the health of children and ensure realization of the potential of school health nurses. She wrote that new messages, new perspectives, increased knowledge, and new alliances needed to be developed in a short time.
Sample student medication policy. (1999). School Violence Alert, 5.
Sanchez, R. & Benning, V. (1996). Fearing abuse and lawsuits, schools just say no to legal drugs. Washington Post.
This article focused on school districts’ responses to students having legal drugs (over-the-counter medications) in their possession in the school setting. It discussed situations in which schools were suspending or expelling students for maintaining or sharing legal drugs in the school setting and whether this was over-reaction.
Sander, N. (2002). Making the grade with asthma, allergies, and anaphylaxis. Pediatric Nursing 28, 593-598.
With asthma, allergies, and anaphylaxis health problems, the authors felt that students should be allowed to carry their medication on their persons and that the school nurse is there to educate the child and family.
Sander, N. (Spring 2003). Puffs, Sprays, Powders & Mists, Oh My. Allergy & Asthma Today. 16-21.
Sapien, R. & Allen, A. (2000). School preparation for the asthmatic student. Journal of Asthma 37, 719-724.
A survey of school nurses in New Mexico in 1996-1997 assessed the preparation of public schools to care for asthmatic students. The results showed that preparation was lacking––many students (25%) did not have a plan, and the necessary monitoring equipment, emergency equipment, and treatment modalities were lacking. The recommendations of a study published in Australia suggested training for school staff and having asthma first-aid kits available.
Schaffer, M., Cameron, M., & Tatley, E. (December 2000). The Value, Be Do Ethical Decision-Making Model: Balancing Student’s Needs in School Nursing. The Journal of School Nursing. 16, 5: 44-49.
Schainker, E., & Grant, L. (2003). Medical home meets educational home: How you can make the most of school health services. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/451832.
Schlitt, J. J. (1991). Issue Brief: Bringing Health to School: Policy Implications for Southern States. Southern Center on Adolsecent Pregnancy Prevention and Southern Regional Project on Infant Mortality.
Schneider, P.J. (2002). Applying Human Factors in Improving Medication-Use Safety. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacists. 59, 12: 1155-1159.
School District Not Required to Administer Excess Medication. (December 1997). Early childhood report: children with special needs & their families. 8, 12.
Schwab, N. & Haas, M. (February 1995). Journal of School Nursing. 11,1: 26-34.
Schwab, N.C. and Gelfman, M.H.B. (editors). (2001). Legal Issues in School Health Services. North Branch, Minnesota: Sun Rise River Press.
Schwab, N.C. and Pohlman, K.J. (August 2000). Managing Risks in Professional and Clinical Performance Dilemmas: Part II. The Journal of School Nursing. 16, 3: 47-52.
School allowed to give students their medicine. (October 7, 1996). Seattle Times. Local News, Education Q&A, B2.
School Handling of Medication. Institute of Safe Medication Practices. Retrieved March 13, 2003, from http://www.ismp.org/consumer/school.html.
School health advisory councils. (n.d.). Retrieved May 18, 2004, from http://www.schoolhealth.org/schcoun.html.
The school nurse: A guide to responsibilities. (n.d.). Dover: Delaware Department of Education.
School Health Programs: Recommendations for Policies and Priorities in a School Health Program. (1-2001). Wyoming Department of Health.
The school nurse and delegation. (2002). Denver: Colorado Department of Education.
School nurse licensure. (2001). Denver: Colorado Department of Education.
School Nurse Health Manual. (1992). Wyoming School Nurses Association.
School Nurse Organization of Minnesota. Promoting Safe Responses. A Partnership/Shared Responsibility Model for Emergency Medication Management in the School Setting. Unpublished: Minneapolis, MN.
School Nurse Organization of Minnesota, Minnesota Department of Education, the American Diabetes Association serving Minnesota, & the Minnesota Department of Health. (November 2003). Helping the Student with Diabetes Succeed. A guide for school personnel. Supplementary materials for implementation in Minnesota. Retrieved from http://www.mnschoolnurses.org.
School nurse student services job description. (n.d.). Retrieved August 10, 2004, from http://www.ncpublicschools.org/employment/license/school_nurse.html.
School safety plans and resources. (n.d.). Retrieved July 21, 2004, from http://www.ade.az.gov/schooleffectiveness/health/schoolsafety/plansresources.asp.
Schools, administrative rules of Montana. (n.d.). Retrieved July 26, 2004 from, http://www.dphhs.state.mt.us/hpsd/pubheal/healsafe/pdf/schools_rules.pdf
Schwab, N. & Haas, M. (1995). Delegation and supervision in school settings: standards, issues and guidelines for practice (Part 1). Journal of School Nursing 11, 26-35.
This article discussed nursing standards of practice and the difficulties posed when implementing them in the school setting. It specifically compared how school nurses and administrators view the Nurse Practice Act and who should be responsible for the delegation of health care in the school setting. In addition, it spoke to other factors that contribute to and cause roadblocks in providing appropriate standards of care for students (e.g., budget constraints).
Schwab, N. & Pohlman, J. (2000). Managing risks in professional and clinical performance dilemmas: Part II. Journal of School Nursing 16, 47-52.
The school nurse must be knowledgeable of the state’s nurse practice act and American Nurses Association and National Association of School Nurses’ standards of professional practice, civil rights, and special education laws, as well as ethical principles. If the school nurse gives in to the district’s pressure to delegate nursing activities to an aide, she may face liability for injuries, according to the authors.
Schwab, N.C. and Gelfman, M.H.B. (editors). (2001). Legal Issues in School Health Services. North Branch, Minnesota: Sun Rise River Press.
Schultze, R. (1999). Reading, writing and Ritalin: The responsibility of public school districts to administer medications to students. Creighton Law Review, 32, 793
Scott, C., Lore, C., & Owen, R. (1992). Increasing medication compliance and peer support among psychiatrically diagnosed students. The Journal of School Health, 62, 478-80.
Scott, R.C., Besag F.M.C., & Nevile B.G.R. (1999). Buccal midazolam and rectal diazepam for treatment of prolonged seizures in childhood and adolescence: randomized trial. The Journal of Pediatrics, Abstracts from the Literature. 135, 3: 398-399.
Section .0700 – Nurse Licensure Compact. (n.d.). Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.ncbon.com/forms/NLC%20Rule700_705.pdf.
Section 3313.713, Ohio Revised Code for Nursing Practice. (1998). Retrieved July 26, 2004, from http://www.nasbe.org/HealthySchools/States/Ohio.html.
Section B scope of authorized functions (Numbers 31-76). (1995). Retrieved August 19, 2002, from http://www.teaching.state.pa.us/teaching/cwp/view.asp?A=131&Q=3308.
Seattle Public Schools. (2001). Medication Administration Policy. (Wash.), 41, 67-77.
The article reviewed federal law requirements and Washington State laws on medication administration in the school setting. It outlined requirements for written requests and authorizations and how medications must be labeled and stored. The article also reviewed student legal rights and the implications of their age.
Section C policies pertaining to staffing (Numbers 80-114). (1996). Retrieved August 19, 2002, from http://www.teaching.state.pa.us/teaching/cwp/view.asp?A=131&QUESTION_ID=33337.
Selekman, J., Thomas, E., & McLean, K. (1998). The school nurse's role in homeopathic interventions. Journal of School Health, 68, 342-5.
Selerno, L. (1996). School policy on medications can be a pain. Omaha World Herald.
Written by a high school student, the article focused on over-the-counter medications being carried by high school students. Omaha School District policy prohibited self-carry and medications were to be brought to the school nurse (no mention of licensing) with a physician/parent note. The article definitely focused on the students feeling inconvenienced by the policy and how “unfair” it was. There was no mention of safety, overdosing, etc.
Sendeljas, J. (2002). Schools note new law letting students bring prescribed inhalers. Houston Chronicle.
This newspaper article was published after a new Texas law allowed asthmatic students to carry prescribed inhalers during the school day. Schools were finding they had many more students diagnosed with asthma, therefore more students coming to school with inhalers and nebulizers. The article addressed the legalities of having students self-administer their asthma inhalers (e.g., paperwork for parents and physicians, documentation that students understand use of inhalers and demonstrate proper use). School nurses need to touch base with students regarding how the students are doing, how medications are working, etc.
Sergi, T. (December 13, 2001). Re: Public Act 01-124 Concerning Recommendations For and Refusal of the Use of Psychotropic Drugs by Children. Connecticut Commissioner of Education, Circular Letter: C-12.
Sergi, T. (May 14, 1999). United States Supreme Court Decision: Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F. issued on March 3, 1999. Connecticut Commissioner of Education, Circular Letter C-27.
Serving students with special health care needs. (n.d.). Retrieved July 26, 2004, from http://www.kdhe.state.ks.us/c-f/guidelines/special_needs.pdf.
Shackelford, J. (2003). Dose for dose. National Association of School Nurses. Retrieved from http://www.nasn.org.
Every day millions of children receive medication at school. There is widespread inconsistency in the distribution of medications in schools. The authors stated that, at the time the article was published, 75% of medications given in schools were given by someone other than a nurse, resulting in those students being three times more likely to miss a dose. The article also stated that “many school personnel aren’t aware of safety and legal issues” surrounding this task and went on to identify key issues and listed the National Association of School Nurses’ guidelines for safe medication administration in school.
Shea, D. (Dec ’92 – Jan ’93). Crisis in the classroom: How kids with poor health care lose in school. PTA Today. 6-8.
Sheetz, A. & Blum, M. (1998). Medication administration in schools: The Massachusetts experience. Journal of School Health, 68, 94-8.
This is not an opinion article. It is a fact-based report on how the State of Massachusetts changed their medication model for schools and developed Massachusetts regulations. There were some similarities and some differences with the Minnesota model. After meeting with parents, nurses, and others, a plan was designed for increased safety and flexibility in medication administration in schools. It is a very informative, well-written article.
Sigsby, L. & Campbell, D. (1995). Nursing interventions classification: A content analysis of nursing activities in public schools. Journal of Community Health Nursing 12, 229-237.
This article compared nursing diagnoses/treatments in home health nursing to public school nursing in an effort to develop a classification system to document services provided by school nurses. The authors found that existing systems appear to be geared to hospital settings delivering services to more acutely ill adult patients, in contrast to school settings where nurses provide care focused on health promotion and illness prevention.
Simon, R. (March-April 1996). Ibuprofen suspension: Pediatric antipyretic. Pediatric Nursing 22, 2: 118-120.
Pediatric ibuprofen’s actions and effectiveness (lowering body temperature/fever) were described. For purposes of this article, it was considered as an over-the-counter medication for children. The authors discussed adverse reactions, drug interactions, precautions, and suggestions about which are of concern, with reference to pertinent research studies. Nursing implications about working with parents/families were covered.
Sklaire, M. (n.d.). The role of the school physician in the opening of school – the dress rehearsal and the overture. Retrieved May 17, 2004, from http://www.schoolhealth.org/violence.html.
Sklaire, M. (1998). The school health road show: Field trips and school policy. School Health Newsletter, Winter/Spring.
This article stated that in order for schools to safely offer field trips, all aspects of the trip should be considered beforehand by the teachers, administration, and school nurse. The teachers in charge of the trip should have training in basic first aid/emergency and administration of medications. If a child cannot safely be part of the trip, then the trip itself should not take place.
Slack, M. & Brooks, A. (1995). Medication management issues for adolescents with asthma. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 52, 1417-1421.
Graduate students recruited 28 adolescents aged 13-17 for focus groups and surveys regarding asthma dx, medication compliance, sources of information, attitudes toward dx and taking medications, peer attitudes, etc. The article described the teens’ desire to manage their medications themselves and how they disobeyed adults or broke rules if obedience or the rule impinged substantially on their ability to manage acute asthma symptoms. The disobedience resulted from inappropriate adult pressure, not from teens’ unwillingness to submit to authority.
Some teens reported fear during an attack/episode that increased by having to go to the nurse’s office for tx due to schools’ “no drug” policy (all medications kept in nurse’s office). Students were generally found to be compliant with asthma tx and peers were supportive.
Smaldone, A. & Dychkowski, L. (2002). Blood glucose testing in the classroom: what are the pros and cons for students and for school nurses? School Nurse News, 19, 44-7.
This article evaluated the pros and cons of glucose testing in sites other than health offices (i.e., classrooms). It suggested that the three main factors to consider are safety, student knowledge and maturity, and school district policy.
Smaldone, A. (2001). Insulin pumps in the classroom: school nurses can make the difference between success and failure. School Nurse News, 18, 12-4.
This was a short “how to” article for school nurses encountering students using insulin pumps at school. It contained an overview of the advantages of use of insulin pumps as well as a list of critical skills that school nurses must possess to safely manage the care of a student with an insulin pump. Schools may need policies on the scope and extent that school personnel administer or assist with medication, treatment, or the technology. Younger students might especially need help or supervision with administration of diabetes therapy.
Small, M., Majer, L., Allensworth, D., Farquhar, B., Kann, L., & Pateman, B. (1995). School health services. Journal of School Health, 65, 319-26.
This article discussed results from a survey, “The School Health Policies and Programs Study.” The study collected data from 51 state-level education agencies, hundreds of district-level education agencies, and schools to assess school health services policies and practices for K-12. The study concluded that the roles, responsibilities, and training of health services staff in schools were not as well defined as the requirements for specific services (e.g., non-nurses do first aid in many cases). The authors concluded that a long-term commitment from health and education professionals was needed to improve student health services.
Smetzer, J. (2001). Take 10 giant steps to medication safety: Find out how a "systems" approach helps prevent errors. Nursing.
These 10 suggestions focused on different important factors in safely prescribing, dispensing, and administering drugs. They were (1) know the patient, (2) know the drugs, (3) communicate clearly, (4) beware of look-alike and sound-alike drug names, (5) restrict and standardize drug storage, stock, and distribution, (6) assess drug delivery devices and maintain competency using them, (7) don’t sabotage yourself, (8) educate the staff, (9) encourage patients to become part of the safety net, and (10) target the process, not the practitioner.
Smithkey, J. (2003). Delegation of nursing tasks and medication administration. Ohio: John Smithkey III.
Smith, E. & Kendrick, A. (1992). A survey of management of asthma in schools in Avon. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 26, 65.
The article focused on survey results about asthma care in state schools in Avon, England. In secondary schools, most students were allowed to carry inhalers. In elementary levels, there was a wide variety of care, practices, knowledge, and no mention of nursing care. There was no protocol or management strategies anywhere or set/designated responsible adults. No medical or safety supervision was in place for asthmatic students.
Smith, T.K., Brener, N.D., Kann, L., Kinchen, S.A., McManus, T. &Thorne, J. (September 2001). Methodology for the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000. Journal of School Health. 71, 7: 260-265.
Snyder, A. (1996). Nursing Law And Education Law: A Practice Dilemma For School Nurses. Medicine and Law, 15, 271-6.
This article looked at the limits of the Nurse Practice Act in New Mexico, which prohibited delegation of medication administration. With the increase of medications administered in schools, nurses are in jeopardy of losing their licenses if they aren’t able to personally give the medications, even though they may cover several schools. Legal counsel in Albuquerque allowed health assistants to “assist” competent students to take their medication. The physician was responsible for identifying the student as competent.
Sorensen, H.T., Mellemkjaer, L, Blot, W.J., Nielsen, G.L., Steffensen, F.H., McLaaughlin J.K., and Olsen, J.H. (September 2000). Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Associated With Use of Low-Dose Aspirin. The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 95, 9: 2218-2224.
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (2002). Position statement: Telephone and electronic prescriptions. Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://www.llr.state.sc.us/POL/Nursing/index.asp?file=telelectronicprescriptions.htm.
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (2001). Advisory opinion #40.
Retrieved August 20, 2002,
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (2001). Advisory opinion #36.
Retrieved August 20, 2002,
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (2001). Advisory opinion #35. Retrieved August 20, 2002, from, http://www.llr.state.sc.us/POL/Nursing/adop35.htm.
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (2001). Position statement: The practice of nursing in a school setting. Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://www.llr.state.sc.us/POL/Nursing/index.asp?file=schoolsetting.htm.
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (1995). Position statement: Assisting with medications. Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://www.llr.state.sc.us/POL/Nursing/index.asp?file=asstwithmeds.htm.
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (1995). Advisory opinion #31. Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://www.llr.state.sc.us/POL/Nursing/adop31.htm.
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (1995). Position statement: Delegation of nursing care tasks to unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP). Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://www.llr.state.sc.us/POL/Nursing/index.asp?file=uaptasks.htm.
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (1989). Advisory opinion #27. Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://www.llr.state.sc.us/POL/Nursing/adop27.htm.
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (1987). Advisory opinion #28. Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://www.llr.state.sc.us/POL/Nursing/adop28.htm.
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (1987). Advisory opinion #11. Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://www.llr.state.sc.us/POL/Nursing/adop11.htm.
South Carolina Board of Nursing. (1987). Advisory opinion #10a. Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://www.llr.state.sc.us/POL/Nursing/adop10.htm.
South Dakota Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Advisory opinions and position statements. Retrieved August 22, 2002, from http://www.state.sd.us/doh/nursing/opinion.htm.
South Dakota Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Frequently asked questions. Retrieved August 22, 2002 from, http://www.state.sd.us/doh/nursing/faq.htm.
South Dakota Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Guidelines for approval of medication administration program. Retrieved August 22, 2002, from http://www.state.sd.us/doh/nursing/nursguide.htm.
South Dakota Board of Nursing. (n.d.). Medication administration
program requirements. Retrieved August 22, 2002, from http://www.state.sd.us/doh/nursing/progreq.htm.
South Dakota Board of Nursing Administrative Rule 20:48. (n.d.). Pierre: South Dakota Board of Nursing.
South Dakota Nurse Practice Act 36:9:30. (n.d.). Pierre: South Dakota Board of Nursing.
South Dakota Statute 13-33A-1 Requirements for School Nurses. (n.d.). Pierre: South Dakota Department of Education.
Southern Regional Education Board. Curriculum and Faculty Development in Community-based Care: School Nurses and Nurse Educators Collaborate. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing. Atlanta, GA. Southern Regional Education Board. http://www.sreb.org.
The Southern Regional Education Board facilitated six workshops that included participants from a number of southern states. The participants were school nurses and nurse educators. The workshops were held in 1999 and included 131 nurses who met in a variety of states for the two-day sessions. The workshops focused on the competencies and needs of school nurses and the programs that train these professionals. Practicing school nurses were encouraged to work with nurse educators in improving curriculum and offering meaningful clinical experience for nursing students. The report provided a lengthy list of examples of collaborations between school districts and institutions of higher learning.
South East Minnesota School Nurse Group. (1998). Lessons learned: Using a regional approach to change school medication policies. Rochester District Office: Minnesota Department of Health.
This article summarized a 1998 process used in an 11-country area in Southeast Minnesota by school nurses to implement consistent school policies for medication storage and administration. The article offered an outline of the process that could help support local implementation of school medication policies, interesting examples of how to successfully implement policy change, and lessons learned.
Spotts, P.N. (March 6, 2003). Chemical Kids. The Christian Science Monitor.
Standards of Nursing Practice, Chapter 610-X-6. (n.d.). Montgomery: Alabama Board of Nursing.
State of California Board of Nursing. (2000). Complimentary and alternative therapies in registered nursing practice. Sacramento: State of California State and Consumer Services Agency.
State of California Board of Nursing. (1997). Standardized procedure guidelines. Sacramento: State of California State and Consumer Services Agency.
State of California Board of Nursing. (1997). Standards of competent performance. Sacramento: State of California State and Consumer Services Agency.
State of California Board of Nursing. (1994). Unlicensed assistive personnel. Sacramento: State of California State and Consumer Services Agency.
State of California Board of Nursing. (1991). The RN as supervisor. Sacramento: State of California State and Consumer Services Agency.
State of California Board of Nursing. (1988). School nurse function. Sacramento: State of California State and Consumer Services Agency.
State of Connecticut Department of Education. (2001). A Resource Directory of Educational Program and Practices. Bureau of Special Education and Pupil Services.
State of Connecticut Department of Education. (2001). Special services endorsements: Fact sheet #120. Retrieved August 16, 2002, from http://www.state.ct.us/sde/dtl/cert/facts01/fact120.htm.
State of Delaware Title 14 Education: 1500 Professional Standards Board. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2004, from http://www.state.de.us/research/AdminCode/title14/.
State of Delaware Title 24 Professions and Occupations: Chapter 19. Nursing. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2004, from http://www.delcode.state.de.us/title24/c019/index.htm#TopOfPage.
State of Hawaii Department of Education. (n.d.). Statute 302A-442.
Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://lilinote.k12.hi.us/STATE/BOE/HRS1.NSF/
State House Network 2001 Code of Laws Chapter 91 – Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation – State Board of Nursing. (2001). Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://www.scstatehouse.net/.
State House Network 2001 Code of Laws Title 40 – Professions and Occupations. (2001). Retrieved August 20, 2002, from http://www.scstatehouse.net/.
State of Illinois Public Acts, 92nd General Assembly. (2001). Retrieved June 12, 2002, from http://www.legis.state.il.us/legislation/publicacts/pubact92/acts/92-0402.html.
State Laws Pertinent to School Nursing. (n.d.). Retrieved August 19, 2002, from http://health.utah.gov/cash/lawsguide_htm.htm.
State of Pennsylvania. (n.d.). Professional Nursing Law. Retrieved July 26, 2004, from http://www.dos.state.pa.us/bpoa/lib/bpoa/20/nurs_board/nurseact.pdf.
State of Queensland. (2002). Department of Education manual, HS-20: Administration of routine and emergency medication and management of health conditions. Retrieved November 8, 2004, from http://education.qld.gov.au/corporate/doem/healthsa/healthsa.html.
State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations Department of Health. (2004). Regulations for the licensing of nurses and standards for the approval of basic nursing education programs. Retrieved July 26, 2004, from http://www.rules.state.ri.us/rules/released/pdf/DOH/DOH_3039.pdf.
State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations Department of Elementary and Secondary Education & Department of Health. (2000). Rules and regulations for school heath programs. Retrieved July 26, 2004, from http://www.rules.state.ri.us/dar/regdocs/released/pdf/DOH/DOH_153_.pdf.
Statute 302A-442: Occupational therapy services, physical therapy services, school health services, mental health services, psychological services, and medical services for diagnostic or evaluative purposes. (2001). Honolulu: State of Hawaii Department of Education.
Statutes and regulations: Nursing. (n.d.). Juneau: Alaska Department of Community and Economic Development.
Sternberg, R.E. & Bailery, J.R. (October 30, 1996). School Drug Rules Strict. The Columbus Dispatch. News Local & National, 5C.
Study finds errors in way schools provide ADHD drugs. (2001). Section 504 Compliance Advisor, 4.
A study by the University of Iowa found that half of 650 nurses reported errors in administering drugs, mostly for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), to students in schools, and almost all of the schools had guidelines for administering the drugs. The also found that 75% of the school nurses delegated the administration of drugs to non-medically trained people. It concluded that better training, more involved parents, medication plans in individualized education plans (IEPs) or 504s, and review of procedures were needed to improve this problem.
Steinberg, N. (1999). School medicine policy defies logic - and doctor. Chicago Sun Times.
Stern This local/national news story from the Columbus (Ohio) Dispatch described lack of consistency––but a presumed trend toward strict policies and harsh enforcement––in school stances toward over-the-counter (OTC) medication use by students. For example, some schools suspended or expelled students for carrying OTC medications at school. Highlighted policies demonstrated responses by school administrators that equated OTC to prescription medications. Other commentators noted the need to balance policies focused on safety with efforts to teach students responsibility for their own health care.
Strategies for Addressing Asthma within a coordinated school health program. (2000). Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/healthtopics/assthma.
Strawhacker, M. (2001). Multidisciplinary teaming to promote effective management of type 1 diabetes for adolescents. Journal of School Health, 71, 213-7.
Intensive diabetes management is critical to prevent further and rapid physiological impacts with adolescents. Effective management is necessary for quality social growth and school involvement and academic success. The support team needs to be a collaborative effort to address academic, social, and health needs with use of health plans. Students may resist following the prescribed treatment plan due to peer group expectations, etc.
Stewart, David. (June 27, 2002). Superintendent Interpretation, Personnel, Professional Personnel, Monogalis County Schools, Morgantown West Virginia. Retrieved August 5, 2003, from http://www.wvde.state.wv.us/interpretations/view/10/151/interpretation.html.
Stopping Bad Medicine with Good Politics. (September 1993). NEA Today. 12.
Study highlights misconceptions about the appropriate treatment of colds among parents of young children. (2-21-2003). MCH Alert, Tomorrow Policy Today, National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Georgetown University, Washington DC.
The authors sought to understand why parents make unnecessary visits to doctors for treatment of their children’s colds. Their goal was to find helpful areas of intervention at the family level. Children with Medicaid insurance, children younger than six years old and who have a parent younger than 30 years old were more likely to seek medical treatment for a cold, believe antibiotics are used to treat colds, and were more likely to visit doctors’ offices for colds. The authors believed education should be addressed at the family level to reduce unnecessary health service utilization.
Stump, J. (2001). Laws from which community schools are exempt and specifically not exempt. Columbus: Ohio Legislative Service Commission.
Swanson, J., Cantwell, D., Lerner, M., McBurnett, K., & Hanna, G. (1991). Effects of stimulant medication on learning in children with ADHD. Journal of Learning Disabilities 24, 219-230.
This article about the effects of stimulant medication on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) focused on academic improvement and effectiveness of each prescription drug, such as Ritalin and Dexedrine. It also discussed dosage effects on behavior.
Sweeney, D., Farness, S., & Kabala, K. (1997). An update on psychopharmacologic medication: What teachers, clinicians, and parents need to know. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33, 4-21.
Children with learning or behavioral disorders commonly use stimulant medications, antidepressants or mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and anticonvulsants, or occasionally anxiolytics (e.g., Valium) and adrenergic agents (e.g., clonidine). Researchers estimate that 2-3% of all school children and 15-20% of children in special education may be receiving one or more of these drugs at any time. This article discussed the potential uses and abuses of psychopharmacologic therapy with children or adolescents displaying learning, emotional, or behavioral disorders. It explored the indications and contraindications of such therapy and enumerated the known side effects of the most frequently prescribed medications.
Synovitz, L. & Nordness, M. (2002). Herbal supplements: Use and abuse. Presented October 3, 2002 at the American School Health Association Conference.
Synovitz, L. (n.d.). Herbal supplements: Handout of herbal supplements. Presented October 3, 2002 at the American School Health Association Conference.