Hearing Screening Resources, Glossary & Bibliography
The Clinic Checklist is available as a PDF download.
The Quick Reference Guide is available as a PDF download.
- American Academy of Audiology
- American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
- CDC, Hearing Loss in Children
- CDC, Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
- C&TC Clinic Checklist
- C&TC Quick Reference: Hearing and Vision
- C&TC Schedule of Age-Related Screening Standards
- C&TC Provider Guide
- Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI)
- Dangerous Decibels
- MDE Early Childhood Screening
- Minnesota Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (www.improveehdi.org)
- MDH Online C&TC Hearing Training
- MN Early Childhood Screening Statutes
- Minnesota Hearing Screening Guidelines
- National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management
- National Hearing Conservation Association
- National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): A Practical Guide to Preventing Hearing Loss
- Sight and Hearing Association
- Ambient noise: Background noise present in the screening area
- Amplification: The use of hearing aids and other electronic devices to increase the loudness of a sound
- ASHA: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
- Audiogram: A graph used to record the lowest decibel of a sound, at select frequencies, heard by a subject
- Audiologist: A professional who specializes in preventing, identifying and assessing hearing impairments as well as managing any non-medical rehabilitation of individuals with hearing loss
- Audiometer: An instrument used to measure hearing
- Auditory nerve: The eighth cranial nerve in the human body, which sends signals from the cochlea to the brain
- Atresia: Closure or absence of the external auditory canal; imperforation (having no opening)
- Automated auditory brainstem response (ABR): A non-invasive hearing test used for the diagnosis of hearing loss and screening infants and children who are at high risk for hearing loss; The ABR is conducted with external electrodes, which capture the neurotransmission of auditory stimuli from the external ear to the auditory cortex; it may require sedation
- Calibration checks: Methods to determine the accuracy of an audiometer, the two primary methods are:
- Biological - Checking the hearing in one ear with the right and left headphones
- Electronic - Measurement of the absolute sound pressure levels of each frequency and other characteristics, e.g. harmonic distortion, frequency count, rise-fall time
- Biological - Checking the hearing in one ear with the right and left headphones
- Cochlea: A snail shaped, fluid-filled capsule that contains the organ of hearing, located in the inner ear
- Cochlear implant: An electronic device surgically implanted in the inner ear that stimulates the cochlea to receive sound
- Compliance: A measurement of tympanometry, which depicts tympanic membrane mobility
- Congenital hearing loss: Hearing loss which is either present at birth, is associated with the birth process, or develops in the first few days of life
- Decibel (dB): A measurement unit that expresses the intensity (loudness) of a sound
- ENTA: medical provider specializing in the care of ears, nose and throat, sometimes referred to as an otolaryngologist or otologist
- External auditory canal: Portion of the ear anatomy that extends from the auricle and external meatus to the tympanic membrane
- Frequency: A measurement of the number of sound vibrations per second, expressed in Hertz (Hz), commonly known as the pitch of the sound
- Hearing aid: An electronic device that conducts and amplifies sound to the inner ear
- Hearing loss: Hearing loss is when the softest or lowest decibel (16dB or more) someone can hear is louder than the sound (0 to15dB) someone with normal hearing can hear. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) classifies hearing loss as follows:
56-70dB: moderately severe
91+ dB: profound
- Hertz (Hz): The unit of measurement, which specifies the frequency of sound waves
- High-risk: Children who have one or more of the risk factors known to impact hearing
- Inner ear: Portion of the ear anatomy internal to the middle ear and consisting of the cochlea, semi-circular canals, and vestibules
- Intensity: The loudness of a sound, measured in decibels (dB)
- Lost to follow-up: When a child does not receive or complete the recommended diagnostic or intervention process
- Loudness: Refers to intensity
- Middle ear: Portion of the ear anatomy that extends from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear, which is a hollow cavity and contains the ossicles
- Middle ear clearance: When a medical provider has determined that the middle ear is free from fluid and appears healthy
- Mixed hearing loss: A combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss
- Noise: Any sound that is unwanted, undesired, or interferes with one’s hearing
- Ossicles: Malleus, incus, and stapes bones, located in the middle ear cavity; crucial to sound conduction
- Otitis media: Inflammation of the middle ear and/or the tympanic membrane
- Otoacoustic emissions (OAE): A noninvasive hearing screening tool that evaluates the presence of a cochlear response to the conduction of sound, which can be indicative of normal hearing; used in infants and young children who are unable to be screened with pure tone audiometry; does not diagnose hearing loss
- Otoscope: Instrument used to examine the ear canal and tympanic membrane
- Outer ear: Portion of the ear anatomy that extends from the pinna to the tympanic membrane and includes the auricle and external auditory canal
- Ototoxic: Refers to conditions and medications that have the potential to damage the cochlea, auditory nerve, and sometimes the vestibular system of the ear
- Pinna: External (visible) portion of the ear anatomy, sometimes called the auricle
- Pitch: Refers to frequency
- Play audiometry: A modification of pure tone audiometry screening used with young children and/or developmentally delayed individuals
- Preauricular sinus: A tiny pit in the skin in the area where the outer rim of the ear (called the helix) attached to the face; preauricular sinuses can be an indicator of other ear problems
- Pure tone audiometry: A method of hearing screening used to identify children with suspected hearing loss by having the child listen to a series of pure tones and noting whether or not there is a response; considered the ‘gold standard’ of hearing screening
- Pure tone: A tone of a single frequency produced by an audiometer, contains no harmonics or overtones
- Sensorineural hearing loss: Hearing loss due to pathology of the cochlea, auditory nerve, or auditory cortex; is usually irreversible
- Skin tag: A growth of skin tissue often near the ears, or elsewhere on the face or neck, is usually small, soft, and skin-colored; in rare cases skin tag(s) are associated with hearing problems
- Threshold: The softest (minimum) decibel at which an individual is able to respond to a tone (frequency) at least 50 percent of the time
- Threshold audiometry: A hearing test performed to determine thresholds at specific frequencies; MDH recommendations are to perform thresholds at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz
- Tympanic membrane: A thin membrane between the external auditory canal and the middle cavity; moves in response to sound waves and sets the ossicles bones in motion
- Tympanometry: An objective measurement of middle-ear mobility and middle ear pressure using sound (probe tone) and air pressure
American Academy of Audiology. (2011). Childhood hearing screening guidelines (PDF), Retrieved January 2013.
American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Otitis Media with Effusion. (2004). Otitis media with Effusion. Pediatrics, 113(5), 1412-1429.
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2007). Year 2007 position statement: principles and guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention programs. Pediatrics, 120(4), 898-921.
American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, Section on Otolargyngology-Head and Neck Surgery. (2009). Hearing assessment in infants and children: recommendations beyond neonatal screening. Pediatrics, 124(4), 1253-1262.
Andrade, G.M., Resende, L.M., Goulart, E.M., Siqueira, A.L., Vitor, R.W., & Januario, J.N. (2008). Hearing loss in congenital toxoplasmosis detected by newborn screening. Braz J Otorhinolaryngology, 74(1), 21-8.
Bess, F., Dodd-Murphy, J., & Parker, R. (1998). Children with minimal sensorineural hearing loss: previous educational performance and functional status. Ear and Hearing, 19, 339-354.
Blair, J.C., Hardebree, D., & Benson, P.V. (1996). Necessity and effectiveness of a hearing conservation program for elementary students. Journal of Educational Audiology,4, 12-16.
Bradham, T., Caraway, T., Moog, J., Houston, T., & Rosenthal, J. (2009). Facts about pediatric hearing loss.
Buz Harlor, A. D., & Bower, C. (2009). Hearing assessment in children: recommendations beyond neonatal screening. Pediatrics 124, 1255
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, June 13). About sound.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, June 5). Congenital CMV infection trends and statistics.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, September 21). Congenital Rubella Syndrome.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, June 13). Hearing loss in children.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. Accessed July 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, September). Summary of 2011 National CDC EHDI Data.
Choo, D., & Meinzen-Derr, J. (2010). Universal newborn hearing screening 2010. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, 18(5), 399-404.
Daly, K.A., Hunter, L.L., & Giebink, G.S. (1999). Chronic otitis media with effusion. Pediatrics in Review, 20(30),85-93.
Dedhia, K., Kitska, D., Sabo, D., & Chi, D. (2013). Children with sensorineural hearing loss after passing the newborn hearing screen. JAMA Otolaryngology-Head&Neck Surgery, 139(2), 119-123.
Fitzgerald, D.C. (1998). Head trauma: hearing loss and dizziness. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection and Critical Care 40(3), 488-496.
Folwer et. al. (1997). Progressive and fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss in children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Journal of Pediatrics 130(40), 624-630.
Gallaudet Research Institute (US). (1996). Stanford Achievement Test (Form S): Norms booklet for deaf and hard of hearing students (9th ed.). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University.
Glascow, F. & Dworkin, P (1995). The role of parent in the detection of developmental and behavioral problems. Pediatrics, 95(6), 829-836
Hagan, J. Shaw, J., & Duncan, P. (Eds.). (2008). Rationale and evidence: selective screening. Pp. 233 in Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children and Adolescents (3rd ed.). Elk Grove, IL:American Academy of Pediatrics.
Joint Committee on Infant Hearing (JCIH). (2007). Year 2007 position statement: principles and guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention programs. Pediatrics, 120(4), 898-921.
Minnesota Children and Youth with Special Needs (MCYSHN). (n.d.). Hearing level/hearing loss. Minnesota Department of Health.
Minnesota Department of Education (MDE). (2013). 2015-2016 Early Childhood Screening Report. Retrieved September 2017.
Minnesota Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI). (2015). Closing the follow-up gap.
Montgomery, J.K., & Fukijawa, S. (1992). Hearing thresholds of students in second, eight, and twelfth grades. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 23, 61-63.
al Muhaimeed, H, & Zakzouk, S.M. (1997). Hearing loss and herpes simplex. J Trop Pediatr 43(1), 20-4.
Podoshin, L, & Fradis, M. (1975). Hearing loss after head injury. Arch Otolaryngology 101(1), 15-18.
Roberts, J. & Bayliss, D. (1967). Hearing levels of adults: by race, region, and area of residence. Public Health Service Publication 11(1000), 1-34.
Roberts, J. & Huber, P. (1967). Hearing levels of children by age and sex. Public Health Service Publication 11(102), 1-51.
Sight and Hearing Association. (n.d.). Noise-induced hearing loss.
Weichbold, V., Neckahm-Heis, D. & Welzl-Mueller, K. (2006).Universal new born hearing screening and postnatal hearing loss. Pediatrics, 117(4), e631- e636
White, K. (2010. October). Twenty years of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI): where we’ve been and what we’ve learned. Presentation at ASHA Audiology Virtual Conference.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). (2008). Universal Screening for Hearing Loss in Newborns.