More research on SDOH
Steven H. Woolf and Paula Braveman. “Where Health Disparities Begin: The Role Of Social And Economic Determinants--And Why Current Policies May Make Matters Worse.” Health Affairs, 30, no.10 (2011):1852-1859.
Health disparities by racial or ethnic group or by income or education are only partly explained by disparities in medical care. Inadequate education and living conditions—ranging from low income to the unhealthy characteristics of neighborhoods and communities—can harm health through complex pathways. Meaningful progress in narrowing health disparities is unlikely without addressing these root causes. Policies on education, child care, jobs, community and economic revitalization, housing, transportation, and land use bear on these root causes and have implications for health and medical spending. A shortsighted political focus on reducing spending in these areas could actually increase medical costs by magnifying disease burden and widening health disparities.
David R. Williams and Selina A. Mohammed. “Racism and Health I: Pathways and Scientific Evidence”. American Behavioral Scientist, 57, no. 8 (2013):1153 -1173.
This article reviews the scientific research that indicates that despite marked declines in public support for negative racial attitudes in the United States, racism, in its multiple forms, remains embedded in American society. The focus of the article is on the review of empirical research that suggests that racism adversely affects the health of nondominant racial populations in multiple ways.
Santa Clara County Public Health. "Santa Clara County Public Health. Health and Social Equity in Santa Clara County.” 2011. (accessed February 5, 2014).
This report focuses on social determinants that influence the health of Santa Clara County, California residents and communities. A wealth of evidence has shown that factors such as education, income, racism, employment, housing and neighborhood conditions have a significant impact on the health and well-being of individuals and entire populations.
California Newsreel. “Unnatural Causes: Backgrounders from the Unnatural Causes Health Equity Database.” 2008. (accessed July 6, 2015).
This document by California Newsreel provides an overview of how social concerns such as income, jobs, education, housing, and racism relate to health outcomes and inequities. The short pieces in this document are taken from the topic introductions in the Health Equity database on the UNNATURAL CAUSES Web site.
California Newsreel, Unnatural Causes’ Collection of Health Equity Resources. (accessed July 6, 2015).
This database contains hundreds of articles, Web sites, video clips, charts, datasets, interviews, transcripts, and educational and outreach materials. Check back often as we will continue to add resources on a regular basis.
Robert Wood Johnson, Commission to Build a Healthier America “ Exploring the Social Determinants of Health”, April 2011. (accessed July 1, 2015)
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. Social determinants of health. The solid facts. Second edition. 2003 (accessed July 8, 2015)
This publication examines this social gradient in health, and explains how psychological and social influences affect physical health and longevity. It then looks at what is known about the most important social determinants of health today, and the role that public policy can play in shaping a social environment that is more conducive to better health.
Social Determinants of Health: Notable Citations – University of Pittsburgh
This site provides a listing of articles and research related to social determinants of health. Specific topics include income inequality and health care utilization.
Community Tool Box: Addressing Social Determinants of Health and Development - University of Kansas
The Community Tool Box describes social factors that need to be addressed to improve health conditions such as economic factors, social inclusion, education, racial or ethnic bias, social norms of acceptance of particular behaviors or practices and cultural factors, influence of mass media, politics, living conditions and geography.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Promoting Health Equity: A Resource to Help Communities Address Social Determinants of Health. 2008 (accessed July 8, 2015)
This workbook was created to encourage and support the development of new and the expansion of existing, initiatives and partnerships to address the social determinants of health inequities. Chapter 1 defines health equity and how social determinants influence health. Chapters 2 and 3 describe how to work with communities to achieve health equity.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Health Disparities and Inequalities Report – United States 2011”. 60, supplement (2011):1 -116
The 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (2011 CHDIR) consolidates the most recent national data available on disparities in mortality, morbidity, behavioral risk factors, health-care access, preventive health services, and social determinants of critical health problems in the United States by using selected indicators. Data presented throughout CHDIR 2011 provide a compelling argument for action. The data pertaining to inequalities in income, morbidity, mortality, and self-reported healthy days highlight the considerable and persistent gaps between the healthiest persons and states and the least healthy. Chapters of most interest include:
Education and Income --- United States, 2005 and 2009
Inadequate and Unhealthy Housing, 2007 and 2009
Unhealthy Air Quality --- United States, 2006—2009
Health Insurance Coverage --- United States, 2004 and 2008
Links to Specific SDOH