Developmental and Social–Emotional Screening of Young Children (0–6 years of age) in Minnesota
Minnesota Department of Human Services Minnesota Department of Education Minnesota Department of Health

Developmental Screening Observational Tools

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Developmental Screening Observational Tools
  Observational Tools
Battelle Developmental Inventory – 2nd ed. (BDI-2)

Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development: 3rd ed. (Bayley III)

Brigance Early Childhood Screens

Developmental Indicators for Assessment of Learning – 4th ed. (DIAL – 4)

Early Screening Inventory - Revised (ESI-R)

Preschool Screening Tool

Early Screening Profiles

Minneapolis Preschool Screening Instrument-Revised

Purpose Screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of early development Examine all facets of a young child’s development “To identify quickly and accurately children from birth through the end of first grade who may have developmental problems such as language impairments, learning disabilities, or cognitive delays.” “An individually administered developmental screener designed to identify children ages 2:6 through 5:11 who are in need of intervention or diagnostic assessment.” “A brief developmental screening instrument that identifies children who may need special education services in order to perform successfully in school.” “FirstSTEP is an individually administered screening test designed to identify young children who may have mild to severe school-related problems.” “A brief, low-cost method of testing large numbers of children to identify those with possible handicaps or other problems that may interfere with development.” “A brief screener used to identify students with early developmental problems who may be in need of early childhood special education services.”

Developmental Areas or Methods

Personal-social, adaptive, motor, communication, cognitive Cognitive, Language, and Motor Scales Receptive Language Development, Expressive Language Development, Fine-Motor Skills, Gross-Motor Skills, Self-help Skills and Social-Emotional Skills Motor, Concepts, Language, Self-Help, Social-emotional Visual Motor-Adaptive, Language and Cognition, Gross Motor areas Cognitive, Language, Motor, Composite, Social-Emotional, Adaptive Behavior, Parent-Teacher Cognitive/
Language, Motor, self-help/social, articulation, health, environment, and behavior
Fine motor, gross motor, language, cognitive

*Behavior/social-emotional sections found in MPSI-R are not approved; an approved social-emotional screening instrument must be used. Literacy screening is at the discretion of the screening provider.
Age span targeted by tool Birth to 7-11 years 1-42 months 0-35 months, 3-5 years, kindergarten and 1st grade 2 years, 6 months to 5 years, 11 months Ages 3-5:11 years
ESI-P: ages 3-4.5
ESI-K: ages 4.5-6
2 years, 9 months to 6 years, 2 months 2 - 6 years, 11 months 3 to 6 years
Cultural, ethnic, linguistic sensitivity Available in English and Spanish.

Written at 6th grade reading level
Available in English Available in English and Spanish. Laotian, Vietnamese, Cambodian and Taglog available for the K-grade 1 screen, K level only Available in Spanish and English. Test materials are available in Spanish (IDT-P and IDT-K, IDT-R). Spanish version slightly more difficult at each level, so cutoff scores adjusted. Available in English. Standardization sample approximated children in appropriate age ranges from 1988 Census data Available in English. The standardization program was conducted from 1987-88.

Norms were built on a representative sample of 1,149 children ages 2 years to 6-11 based on census data.
Available in English, Spanish, Somali, and Hmong.

Test was normed on 1294 English speakers (ENG) and 207 Non English speakers (ELL) from preschool children screened in the 2003-04 school year in MPS and participating metro screening programs
Reliability Internal consistency: 0.78 - 0.96

Interrater: 0.97 - 0.99
Internal consistency: 0.86 - 0.93 Internal consistency: 0.81-0.99

Test-retest: 0.84 - 0.99

Inter-rater: 0.90-0.99
Internal consistency: 0.83 - 0.95

Test-retest: 0.80
Internal consistency: 0.79 (English), 0.73 (Spanish)

Inter-rater: 0.97 - .99

Test-retest: 0.72 (ESI-K)
Test-retest: 0.90

Interrater: 0.91- 0.94
Internal consistency: 0.60 - 0.90

Test-Retest: 0.55 - 0.93

Interrater: 0.80 to 0.99 (motor only)
Internal Consistency: MPSI-R-ENG: 0.90

MPSI-R-ELL: 0.91

Test-retest and inter/intra-rater reliability unknown
Validity Extensive validity studies, see technical manual for more information Extensive validity studies; see technical manual for more information. Concurrent = Infant and Toddler screens: 0.16 – 0.89; 2 years and older: 0.70 - 0.97. See manual for additional description of validity. Construct= sufficient across measures; see manual for more information. Predictive validity: .72 (ESI-P), .75 (ESI-K). Concurrent validity: 0.63 - 0.82 Concurrent validity scores range from .48 to .84

Predictive validity varies widely due to multiple comparisons; however, average is around .70
Concurrent validity: MPSI-R-ENG: 0.76 with ESI-R

With BDI: 3 y.o.: 0.51 4 y.o.: 0.68

MPSI-R-ELL: 0.67 with ESI-R

Predictive validity with MPS Beginning of Kindergarten Assessment (BKA) Total score vs. BKA composite = 0.69 (time between administration of MPSI-R and BKA unknown)


Sensitivity: 72-93%

Specificity: 79-88%
Extensive sensitivity studies; see technical manual for more information

Specificity 0.77 - 1.00
Sensitivity: 84%

Specificity: 82%
Sensitivity: 67-87%

Specificity: 73-91%
Sensitivity: 93%

Specificity: 80%
Sensitivity: 72 – 85%

Specificity: 76 – 83%
Sensitivity = 53 – 92%

Specificity = 65 – 88%
Sensitivity: 71-83%

Specificity: 89-93%
Practicality (time to administer and score, ease of administration) 10-30 minutes to administer.

15-30 minutes to score.
15-25 minutes to administer 10-15 minutes to administer.

2 minutes to score
30-45 minutes to administer.

10-15 minutes to score
15-20 minutes to administer 15 minutes to score 15-20 minutes to administer

Kit includes manual
10-30 minutes

Manual and video available
Administration: 12-15 min

Scoring: 2-5 min
Minimum expertise for screeners and scorers One day of training, knowledge, and skills related to child development: early childhood education, employment testing, education, career counseling and healthcare setting. All scorers should have a minimum of a bachelor’s degree and attend a 5-day training program. Those involved with administering the Screens should have experience and background in child development. Consult manual prior to screening and scoring. Manual and e-training available Trained professional or paraprofessional who demonstrates competence in administering and scoring one DIAL-4 performance area and the ability to relate to young children of any linguistic or cultural background. Formal background in early childhood assessment, or supervision by person with such qualifications, is recommended. Screeners and scorers are trained via manual Can be completed by professionals and paraprofessionals who have been trained to understand the scoring procedures Can be done by educational assistant/ paraprofessional

ELL forms need a trained interpreter to work with administrator

Training required from MPS: 3 hours to train a trainer and 1.5 hours to train administrators
Online or Electronic Component eKit is available that does not require internet None Online scoring available Online scoring and reporting is available None None None None
Cost (Note: costs change over time; contact publisher for current information) BDI-2 Screener Test with Examiners Manual and Screener Manipulatives $371.50 $220 per complete kit, $62 per test manual, $46.75 per 25 test record forms Screening Kits: $299 for 0-35 months; $259 for 3-5 years, $38 for 30 pack of Grade K Data Sheets, $38 for 30 pack of Grade 1 Data Sheets. Online Management System (1 year license/per child) for $8. $647 per complete kit, $35 - $88 for material refills, training DVD is available for $110.25, $1.00 for 1 online usage $146.50 per ESI-P Kit Ages 3-4 1/2 and ESI-K Kit Ages 4 1/2-6, $35.25 per 30 score sheets $292 per complete kit, $56.25 per pack of 25 score sheets $385 per starter kit, $44.30 for 25 test records $65.00 for kit
Publisher Riverside Publishing
Pearson Assessments

Curriculum Associates, Inc.

Pearson Assessments

Pearson Assessments

Pearson Assessments

Pearson Assessments


Minneapolis Public Schools