Lead Poisoning in Children: Early Detection, Intervention and Prevention
References and Acknowledgements
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (2010). Lead. Retrieved from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=22.
American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Environmental Health. (2005). Lead Exposure in Children: Prevention, Detection, and Management. Pediatrics. Vol. 116:1036-1046.
Binns H.J., Campbell C., Brown M.J. (2007). Interpreting and Managing Blood Lead Levels of Less Than 10 µg/dL in Children and Reducing Childhood Exposure to Lead: Recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Pediatrics. Vol. 120(5):e1285-e1298.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Wengrovitz, A.M., & Brown, M.J. Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning, Division of Environmental and Emergency Health Services, National Center for Environmental Health. Recommendations for blood lead screening of Medicaid-eligible children aged 1--5 years: An updated approach to targeting a group at high risk. MMWR, 49(RR14), 1-13.
CDC. (2002). Chapter 4: Nutritional assessment and interventions. In H. Birt (Ed.), Managing elevated blood lead levels among young children: Recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention, (pp. 61-76). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/CaseManagement/chap4.pdf
Fadrowski, J.J., Navas-Acien, A., Tellez-Plaza, M., Guallar, E., Weaver, V.M., & Furth, S.L., (2010). Blood lead level and kidney function in US adolescents. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170(1), 75-82.
Hoppin, J.A., Aro, A., Hu, H., & Ryan, P.B. (1997). In vivo bone lead measurement in suburban teenagers. Pediatrics, 100(3), 365-370.
Jones, R.L., Homa, D.M., Meyer, P.A., et al. (2009). Trends in blood lead levels and blood lead testing among US children aged 1 to 5 years, 1988-2004. Pediatrics, 123(3), e376-e385.
Rischitelli, G., Nygren, P., Bougatsos, C., Freeman, M., & Helfand, M. (2006). Screening for elevated lead levels in childhood and pregnancy: An updated summary of evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics, 118(6), e1867-1895.
Schwab, L.T., Roberts, J.R., & Reigart, J.R. (2003). Inaccuracy in parental reporting of the age of their home for lead-screening purposes. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 157, 584-586.
CDC. (2005). Blood lead levels---United States, 1999-2002. MMWR, 54(20), 513-516.
Prevention & Epidemiology, Oregon Health Division (1998). Ceramic and pottery cookware: A potential source of Pb. CD Summary 47(21).
CDC. (2006). Death of a child after ingestion of a metallic charm --- Minnesota, 2006. MMWR; 55(12), 340-341.
CDC. (2006). Deaths associated with Hypocalcemia from Chelation Therapy --- Texas, Pennsylvania, and Oregon, 2003-2005. MMWR, 55(08), 204-207.
CDC. (2004). Brief report: Lead poisoning from ingestion of a toy necklace --- Oregon, 2003. MMWR, 53(23), 509-511.
CDC Oregon Health Division (2000). Lead poisoning has not gone away. CD Summary, 49(24).
CDC. (2000). Recommendations for blood lead screening of young children enrolled in Medicaid: Targeting a group at high risk. MMWR, 49(RR14), 1-13.
Center for Disease Prevention & Epidemiology, Oregon Health Division (2004). Introducing the New Childhood Lead Screening Questionnaire. CD Summary 2004; 53(15).
MDH Environmental Health Division. (2015). 2015 Blood Lead Surveillance Report (PDF), 1-26.
CDC. (2007). Reducing childhood exposures to lead: Recommendations of CDC's Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. MMWR, 56 (RR08), 1-14;16.
Zabel, E.W., Falken, M.C., Sonnabend, M., Alms, M., & Symonik, D.M. (2005). Prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and evaluation of a lead risk screening questionnaire in rural Minnesota. Journal of Environmental Health 68(2), 9-16.
This online module was developed after careful review of multiple sources of information and current literature review. Several organizations granted permission to use their materials. Materials were adapted from several sources including but not limited to:
- Minnesota Department of Health (Environmental Health)
- MDH Department of Human Services (DHS)
- American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and Bright Futures
- American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
- Healthy People 2010 and 2020
- Center for Disease Control (CDC)
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
- Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
- Oregon Department of Health
- New York State Department of Health
- Oklahoma Department of Health
- San Antonio Department of Health
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