||Demonstration of Skill
|Building Rapport: Establish relationship with the participant by clearly communicating and creating expectations, while helping the participant to feel in control
- Greet the participant
- Introduce yourself
- Indicate expected length of the appointment
- Set the agenda
- Ask permission to proceed
|Active Listening: Focus on the participant and minimize outside distractions.
- Listen with undivided attention
- Establish eye contact
- Have an open expression
- Stand or sit in a relaxed but attentive manner
- Speak in a warm tone
- Use computer as a tool, limit screen time
|Collaboration: Lessen participants resistance or "push back". Increase collaboration with participant in making behavior change.
- When a participant feels ambivalent (two ways) about some of their behaviors, help the participant explore that
- Do not push a participant to make changes. The participant is responsible for change
- Encourage participants to talk about their own reasons for change
- Use an empathetic style based on cooperation, warmth and non-judgment
|Identify Change Talk: Listen carefully for a participant's own reasons for making a change. It signals that a person is thinking about an attitude or a behavior change.
- Listen to a participant for their own reasons they may want to make a change
- Listen for talk about desires, ability, reasons, fears and needs
- Use reflective listening to reflect the change talk back to the participant
|Open-ended Questions: Use open-ended, non-judgmental questions to engage participant and encourage deeper conversation.
- Ask questions that require more than a "yes" or "no" or short answer
- Questions asked in a way that is open, inviting, and accepting
- Aim for 50% of questions to be open-ended
- Try to have participant talk twice as much as you
|Affirmations: Seize appropriate opportunities to make (genuine) affirming statements to help build rapport and establish relationship.
- Affirm a trait, attribute or strength of the participant or on their effort towards a healthy behavior
- Focus on strength, abilities or efforts that support positive change
- Increase confidence in ability to change; show support and respect
|Reflective Listening: Let the speaker know that you have been listening and helps you check your understanding of what is being said or the emotion behind it.
- Repeat or rephrase what the person says in similar words
- Paraphrase, making a guess to the unspoken meaning
- Paraphrase, emphasize the emotion through feeling statements
|Explore/Offer/Explore: Identify the participant's knowledge and experiences before providing information. Eliminate redundancy in educational efforts.
- Explore what the participant already knows, or would like to know. "What do you already know about [blank]?" "What have you heard about [blank]?"
- Offer information in a neutral, nonjudgmental manner
- Explore about the participant's thoughts, feeling and reactions. "What do you think about this information?" "What was new or useful?" "How might you use this information?"
|Summarizing: Summarize what has been said and ask for feedback to see if you have correctly identified participant's concerns.
- Tie together what has been said
- Reemphasize important points or change talk
- Check for understanding "Did I get it all?" "Did I miss anything?"
|Goal Setting: Help participants set goals for achievable behavior change. Goals provide a target to aim for and help establish priorities.
- Ask questions to help participant clarify the change they want
- Help participant determine how to achieve a behavior change "How would you do that?" "Would you like to try [blank]?" "So, what do you see yourself doing next?" "What will be your next step?"