Eastern Equine Encephalitis Fact SheetMinnesota Department of Health
Revised May, 2005
Download a print version of this document:
Eastern Equine Encephalitis Fact Sheet (PDF: 82KB/2 pages)
What is Eastern equine encephalitis?
- Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a viral illness transmitted
to people and horses through the bite of an infected mosquito.
- EEE is maintained in a transmission cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes (1 of 50 mosquito species in Minnesota) and birds. People and horses are infected by other mosquito species that feed on the infected birds and subsequently feed on mammals. People cannot contract EEE directly from their horses.
How serious is Eastern equine encephalitis?
- Fortunately EEE is a rare illness in humans, and only a few
cases are reported in the United States each year. Many people
are bitten by infected mosquitoes but never develop any symptoms
of the illness. Cases of EEE are more common in children.
- Severe cases of EEE begin with the sudden onset of headache,
high fever, chills, and vomiting. The illness may then progress
into disorientation, seizures, and coma. This disease is the most
severe mosquito-transmitted disease in the United States with
between 50-75% mortality in cases with symptoms, and significant
brain damage in about 80% of survivors.
- In horses, EEE is also quite severe with mortality rates ranging from 70-90 percent. EEE can also cause high mortality in non-native bird species (e.g. emus and ring-necked pheasants).
What is the risk of an Eastern equine encephalitis outbreak in Minnesota?
- EEE is typically found in the eastern United States (as far
west as Michigan), and in the south along the Gulf Coast.
- The risk of an EEE outbreak in humans is low in Minnesota. No
human cases have been reported here, but three horse cases were
reported in 2001 (first evidence of this virus in Minnesota in
recent history). These horse cases were part of a regional outbreak
which included approximately 70 horses in Wisconsin, and a single
horse in Iowa.
- Most of the 2001 horse cases occurred near tamarack bogs or hardwood swamps. These are the types of wetlands that produce Cs. melanura mosquitoes.
How can people prevent Eastern equine encephalitis?
- People can reduce their risk of EEE significantly by avoiding
outdoor activities at dusk and dawn (the primary feeding time
for several mammal-feeding mosquitoes).
- If people engage in outdoor activities at dusk and dawn they
can wear long sleeved shirts and long pants. They can also use
mosquito repellents containing DEET (less than 30% DEET is sufficient for adults, and no more than 10% for children) according to label instructions.
- An EEE vaccine is available for horses. Please contact your veterinarian for vaccine recommendations.