Epidemiological Profile of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota
Risk Populations: African Americans
HIV/AIDS Prevalence among African Americans
While African Americans account for 4 percent of the total population in Minnesota, they make up 22 percent of the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in Minnesota. As of December 31st, 2012 there were 1,646 African Americans living with HIV/AIDS in Minnesota.
HIV Diagnoses among African Americans
In 2012, there were 77 HIV diagnoses among African Americans in Minnesota accounting for 24 percent of all HIV infection diagnoses.
Of those 77 HIV diagnoses, 60 (78%) were African American males while 17 (22%) were African American females. The annual number of cases for African American males peaked in 1992 at 78 and gradually decreased to 33 in 2003. During the past several years the number of cases in this group has trended upwards, with 60 new HIV diagnoses in 2012. This represents a 40 percent increase among African-American males from 2011 to 2012. Since 2001, the annual number of new infections diagnosed among African American females has increased slightly overall, although without a clear pattern from year to year. In 2012 there were 17 cases diagnosed among African American women, compared to 21 in 2011.
Mode of Exposure
Of the 162 African American males diagnosed between 2010 and 2012, 84 percent of cases had an estimated mode of exposure of MSM, 11 percent heterosexual contact, 3 percent IDU and 2 percent other mode of exposure that includes hemophilia, transplant, transfusion or mother with HIV or HIV risk.
Of the 54 African American females diagnosed between 2010 and 2012, 96 percent of cases had an estimated mode of exposure of heterosexual contact, 2 percent IDU and 2 percent other mode of exposure.
Age at Diagnosis
African American men are diagnosed at a younger age compared to other race/ethnicities. The average age at diagnosis for African American men diagnosed between 2010 and 2012 was 31 years old compared to 37 years old among white men and 40 years old among African-born men. However, African American women are diagnosed at an older age compared to other race/ethnicities. The average age at diagnosis for African American women diagnosed between 2010 and 2012 was 39 years old compared to 38 years old among white women and 34 years old among African-born women.
HIV Treatment Cascade among African Americans
There were 1,545 HIV positive African Americans included in the HIV Treatment Cascade (PDF: 952KB/2 pages) analyses. African Americans living with HIV in Minnesota have lower percentages of engagement of care at every step of the HIV treatment cascade when compared to the overall cascade in Minnesota. African Americans have the lowest rate of viral suppression of all the racial/ethnic groups with 52 percent of PLWHA virally suppressed.
There were 64 cases among African Americans reported in 2011 that were included in the linkage to care calculation. African Americans have the lowest linkage to care rate than other racial/ethnic groups with 72 percent linked to care.