Epidemiological Profile of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota
Risk Populations: African Americans
HIV/AIDS Prevalence among African Americans
While African Americans account for 4% of the total population in Minnesota, they make up 22% of the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in Minnesota. As of December 31st, 2013 there were 1,703 African Americans living with HIV/AIDS in Minnesota.
HIV Diagnoses among African Americans
In 2013, there were 71 HIV diagnoses among African Americans in Minnesota accounting for 24% of all HIV infection diagnoses.
Of those 71 HIV diagnoses, 56 (79%) were African American males while 15 (21%) were African American females. The annual number of cases for African American males peaked in 1992 at 78 and gradually decreased to 33 in 2003. During the past several years the number of cases in this group has trended upwards, with 56 new HIV diagnoses in 2013. Since 2001, the annual number of new infections diagnosed among African American females has increased slightly overall, although without a clear pattern from year to year. In 2013 there were 15 cases diagnosed among African American women, compared to 17 in 2012.
Mode of Exposure
Of the 159 African American males diagnosed between 2011 and 2013, 87% of cases had an estimated mode of exposure of MSM, 9% heterosexual contact, 1% IDU, 1% joint risk of MSM and IDU, and 2% other mode of exposure that includes hemophilia, transplant, transfusion or mother with HIV or HIV risk.
Of the 53 African American females diagnosed between 2011 and 2013, 98% of cases had an estimated mode of exposure of heterosexual contact and 2% had a risk of injection drug use.
Age at Diagnosis
African American men are diagnosed at a younger age compared to other race/ethnicities. The average age at diagnosis for African American men diagnosed between 2011 and 2013 was 32 years old compared to 38 years old among white men and 40 years old among African-born men. However, African American women are diagnosed at a slightly older age compared to other race/ethnicities. The average age at diagnosis for African American women diagnosed between 2011 and 2013 was 38 years old compared to 37 years old among white women and 35 years old among African-born women.
HIV Treatment Cascade among African Americans
There were 1,594 HIV positive African Americans included in the HIV Treatment Cascade analyses. African Americans living with HIV in Minnesota have lower percentages of engagement of care at every step of the HIV treatment cascade when compared to the overall cascade in Minnesota. African Americans have the lowest rate of viral suppression of all the racial/ethnic groups with 54% of PLWHA virally suppressed.
There were 75 cases among African Americans reported in 2012 that were included in the linkage to care calculation. African Americans have the second lowest linkage to care rate compared to other racial/ethnic groups with 85% linked to care.