Epidemiological Profile of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota
Injection Drug Use
HIV/AIDS Prevalence among People Who Inject Drugs
Minnesota has a relatively low rate of infection among people who inject drugs (IDU). However, it is important to note that injection drug use may be under reported due to social stigma.
People who inject drugs (including people with a joint risk of MSM and IDU) account for approximately 10% of all living HIV cases in Minnesota. As of December 31st 2013, there were 416 people who inject drugs and 387 men who have sex with men and inject drugs (MSM/IDU) living with HIV/AIDS in Minnesota.
HIV Diagnoses among IDU
The number of new diagnoses attributable to injection drug has remained low from year to year over the past decade. However there are differences by racial/ethnic group as well as by gender.
Gender and Race/Ethnicity
IDU is the second most common known mode of transmission among women after heterosexual contact with some with or at risk for HIV, and accounted for 3% of cases among women in 2013. IDU was estimated as a risk for 15% of cases among White, 10% among American Indian, 8% among Hispanic, and 2% among African American women during 2011-2013. No cases were attributed to IDU among African-born or Asian females during this same time period.
Among men, IDU and MSM/IDU accounted for 5% of new cases in 2013, however it percentages varied by racial/ethnic group. IDU and MSM/IDU was estimated as a risk for 9% of cases among White, 2% among African American, 1% among Hispanic, and 40% among American Indian males during 2011-2013. It is important to note the number of American Indian males diagnosed during this time period was small and is difficult to make generalizations about risk. No cases were attributed to IDU or MSM/IDU among African-born or Asian males during this same time period.
Treatment Cascade for IDU and MSM/IDU in Minnesota
There were 414 HIV positive persons with IDU as their identified risk and 384 with MSM/IDU as their risk included in the HIV Treatment Cascade analyses. Compared to the overall HIV treatment cascade in Minnesota, people who have an identified HIV risk of IDU and MSM/IDU have lower percentages of retention in care as well as viral suppression. Both risk groups had high levels of linkage to HIV care within three months of HIV diagnosis, but the number of cases in 2012 among IDU and MSM IDU were small and should be interpreted with caution.