Epidemiological Profile of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota
Injection Drug Use
HIV/AIDS Prevalence among People Who Inject Drugs
Minnesota has a relatively low rate of infection among people who inject drugs. However, it is important to note that injection drug use may be under reported due to social stigma.
People who inject drugs (including people with a joint risk of MSM and IDU) account for approximately 11 percent of all living HIV cases in Minnesota. As of December 31st 2012, there were 419 people who inject drugs and 382 men who have sex with men and inject drugs (MSM/IDU) living with HIV/AIDS in Minnesota.
HIV Diagnoses among IDU
The number of new diagnoses attributable to injection drug has remained low from year to year over the past decade. However there are differences by racial/ethnic group as well as by gender.
Gender and Race/Ethnicity
IDU is the second most common known mode of transmission among women after heterosexual contact, and accounted for 7% of cases among women in 2012. IDU was estimated as a risk for 14 percent of cases among White, 10 percent among American Indian, and 2 percent among African American women during 2010-2012. No cases were attributed to IDU among African-born, Hispanic or Asian females during this same time period.
Among men, IDU and MSM/IDU accounted for 7 percent of new cases in 2012, however it percentages varied by racial/ethnic group. IDU and MSM/IDU was estimated as a risk for 10 percent of cases among white, 3 percent among African American, 3 percent among Hispanic, and 38 percent among American Indian males.10 percent among American Indian, and 2 percent among African American women during 2010-2012. It is important to note the number of American Indian males diagnosed during this time period was small and is difficult to make generalizations about risk. No cases were attributed to IDU or MSM/IDU among African-born or Asian males during this same time period.
Treatment Cascade for IDU and MSM/IDU in Minnesota
There were 407 HIV positive persons with IDU as their identified risk and 372 with MSM/IDU as their risk included in the HIV Treatment Cascade (PDF: 952KB/2 pages) analyses. Compared to the overall HIV treatment cascade in Minnesota, people who have an identified HIV risk of IDU have lower percentages of retention in care as well as viral suppression while those with a joint risk of MSM/IDU have similar percentages of these measures as compared to the overall cascade. There were not enough cases among either IDU or MSM/IDU reported in 2011 to be able to calculate the linkage to care measure.