Epidemiological Profile of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota

Risk Populations: Women

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HIV/AIDS Prevalence among Women

Since the beginning of the epidemic, women have accounted for approximately 25 percent of persons living with HIV in Minnesota as well as new HIV diagnoses. As of December 31st 2012, there were 1,745 women living with HIV in Minnesota.

Race/Ethnicity

Women of color are account for a disproportionate number of women living with HIV in Minnesota. White women account for just 25 percent of women living with HIV, while women of color account for 73 percent of prevalent female HIV/AIDS cases whereas only 17 percent of the general female population in Minnesota is non-White. The largest number of women living with HIV/AIDS is among African-born women (560 persons) followed by African-American and White women (506 and 438 persons, respectively).

Mode of Exposure

Across all race/ethnicity groups, females most frequently report heterosexual contact as their mode of HIV exposure.  However, IDU also accounts for a large percentage of female cases among most race/ethnicity groups.  The largest estimated percentage of IDU cases are among American Indians (21%), followed by Whites with 17 percent, African Americans with 14 percent and Hispanics with 8 percent.  Among Asian females, heterosexual contact accounted for an estimated 89 percent of cases, and IDU for an estimated 3 percent. However, the number of prevalent cases among Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian females is quite small, so the results need to be interpreted very carefully.  Finally, while African-born women make up the largest proportion (32%) of females living with HIV in Minnesota, they account for less than one percent of the

IDU cases among HIV positive women.

The majority (73%) of women living with HIV in Minnesota have a mode of exposure of heterosexual contact. Injection drug use accounts for 9 percent of prevalent HIV infections in Minnesota among women.

HIV Diagnoses among Women

In 2012 the number of newly infected cases as compared to 2011 decreased by 19 percent from 74 to 60 cases. This is the lowest number of HIV diagnoses among women since 1997.

Annual Number of New HIV Infections Among Females by Race/Ethnicity and Year of Diagnosis, Minnesota 2003 – 2012
Race/Ethnicity
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
White
7
23
18
30
19
22
19
22
14
11
Black:
47
49
54
45
43
46
40
36
48
39
   African Amer.
18
18
28
28
17
23
19
16
21
17
   African-Born
29
31
26
17
26
23
21
20
27
22
Hispanic
4
9
6
6
7
4
5
2
5
4
Amer. Indian
4
3
4
2
5
3
4
5
1
5
Asian/PI
2
2
0
2
1
1
0
1
3
0
Other*
1
0
1
4
3
3
3
2
3
1
Total
65
86
83
89
78
79
71
68
74
60

 

By Race/Ethnicity

In 2012, women of color accounted for 13 percent of the female population but made up 80 percent of new infections among females, with African American and African-born women accounting for 65 percent of infections among women. White, non-Hispanics make up approximately 83 percent of the female population and 18 percent of new infections among women in 2012.  African-born women continue to have the highest number of new infections annually. The annual number of new infections diagnosed among Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian females continues to be quite small.

By Mode of Exposure

Throughout the epidemic, heterosexual contact has been the predominant mode of HIV exposure reported among females accounting for 77 percent of female cases in 2012. IDU is the second most common known mode of transmission, and accounted for 7 percent of cases among women in 2012. Unspecified risk has been designated for a growing percentage of cases for the past several years and represented 21 percent of female cases in 2012, an increase of 75 percent of the proportion of cases in 2011 when 12 percent of women diagnosed with HIV infection did not have a specified mode of transmission. Most of these cases would not agree to or could not be interviewed by a Disease Intervention Specialist from MDH. Some cases may yet be interviewed, thus, a portion of these women will later have an identified mode of transmission. This explains part of the higher percentage of cases in recent years with an unspecified mode of exposure.

HIV Treatment Cascade among Women

There were 1,655 HIV positive women included in the HIV Treatment Cascade (PDF: 952KB/2 pages) analyses. Compared to men, women are virally suppressed at a lower rate than men (58 percent versus 62 percent). Retention in care does not vary greatly by gender.

There were 73 cases among women reported in 2011 that were included in the linkage to care calculation. Women were linked to care at a higher than rate than men in 2011 (90 percent versus 75 percent).

 

Updated Friday, 31-Jan-2014 14:55:02 CST