Companion Text for the Slide Set: Minnesota HIV Surveillance Report, 2013

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Table of Contents

On this page:
Overview
Data Source
Data Limitations
HIV/AIDS in the United States
HIV/AIDS in Minnesota
MDH HIV/AIDS Surveillance: Cumulative cases
Overview of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota, 1990-2013
New HIV Infections in Minnesota
New HIV Infections by Geography
New HIV Infections by Gender
New HIV Infections by Race/Ethnicity
New HIV Infections among Adolescents and Young Adults, 1990-2013
New HIV Infections by Mode of Exposure
Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission
Populations of Interest: New HIV Infections among Foreign-born Persons

Late Testers: Progression to AIDS within one year of HIV diagnosis

Overview

The Minnesota HIV Surveillance Report, 2013 describes the occurrence of newly reported HIV diagnoses in Minnesota by person, place, and time through December 31, 2013. Such data provide information about where and among whom HIV transmission is likely occurring. This knowledge can in turn be used to help educate, target prevention efforts, plan for services, and develop policy.

Data Source

In Minnesota, laboratory-confirmed infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are monitored by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) through an active and passive surveillance system.  State rules (Minnesota Rule 4605.7040) require both physicians and laboratories to report all cases of HIV infection (HIV or AIDS) directly to the MDH (passive surveillance). Additionally, regular contact is maintained with several clinical sites to ensure completeness of reporting (active surveillance). In June 2011, an amendment to the communicable disease reporting rule was passed, requiring the report of all CD4 and Viral Load test results.

Data in this report include cases diagnosed with HIV infection (1)as of December 31, 2013 and reported to the MDH as of April 1, 2014. All data are displayed by earliest date of HIV diagnosis. Refer to the HIV Surveillance Technical Notes for a more detailed description of data inclusions and exclusions.

Data Limitations

Factors that impact the completeness and accuracy of the available surveillance data on HIV/AIDS include the level of screening and compliance with case reporting. Thus, any changes in numbers of infection diagnoses may be due to one of these factors, or due to actual changes in HIV/AIDS occurrence.

The data presented in this report are not adjusted for reporting delays. Thus, the case number presented for the most recent reporting year can be viewed as a minimum and will likely increase in the future as further case reports are received. However, the number of cases diagnosed within a calendar year changes relatively little after two years have passed.

HIV/AIDS in the United States

Compared with the rest of the nation, Minnesota is considered to be a low to moderate HIV/AIDS incidence state. In 2011, state-specific HIV infection diagnosis rates ranged from 2.3 per 100,000 persons in Vermont to 33.6 per 100,000 persons in Louisiana with an overall national rate of 19.1 per 100,000 persons. Minnesota had the 17th lowest HIV infection rate (7.2 HIV infections reported per 100,000 persons) (2). Compared with other states in the Midwest, Minnesota has a moderate rate of HIV diagnosis. At this time all states have confidential name-based HIV case reporting and 2011 is the first year of data from which a national comparison of HIV infection rates were calculated. In 2011, state-specific AIDS diagnosis rates ranged from 0.5 per 100,000 persons in Vermont to 22.8 per 100,000 persons in Georgia. Minnesota had the 15th lowest AIDS rate (4.0 AIDS cases reported per 100,000) (3). Compared with states in the Midwest region, Minnesota had a moderate AIDS rate.

HIV/AIDS in Minnesota

MDH HIV/AIDS Surveillance: Cumulative Cases

AIDS has been tracked in Minnesota since 1982. In 1985, AIDS officially became a reportable disease to state and territorial health departments nationwide. Also in 1985, when the Food and Drug Administration approved the first diagnostic test for HIV, Minnesota became the first state to make HIV infection a reportable condition. As of December 31, 2013, a cumulative total of 10,409 cases of HIV infection have been reported among Minnesota residents.(4)  Of these 10,409 cases, 3,558 (34%) are known to be deceased through correspondence with the reporting source, other health departments, review of death certificates, active surveillance, and matches with the National Death Index and Social Security Death Master File.

Overview of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota, 1990-2013

The annual number of new AIDS cases increased steadily from the beginning of the epidemic to the early 1990s, reaching a peak of 361 cases in 1992. Beginning in 1996, both the number of newly diagnosed AIDS cases and the number of deaths among AIDS cases declined sharply, primarily due to the success of new antiretroviral therapies including protease inhibitors. These treatments do not cure, but can delay progression to AIDS among persons with HIV (non-AIDS) infection and improve survival among those with AIDS. These treatments have been shown to be effective at preventing transmission of HIV. Thus between 2001 and 2004 the number of AIDS cases diagnosed increased from 145 in 2001 to 245 in 2004, a 69 percent increase. Since 2004 the number of AIDS cases diagnosed has declined, with 154 AIDS cases diagnosed in 2013. The number of HIV (non-AIDS) diagnoses has remained fairly constant over the past decade from 2004 through 2013, at approximately 230 cases per year. With a peak of 281 newly diagnosed HIV (non-AIDS) cases in 2009, 224 new HIV (non-AIDS) cases were reported in 2013 (a decrease of 5% from 235 in 2012). By the end of 2013, an estimated 7,723 persons with HIV/AIDS were assumed to be living in Minnesota. (5)

New HIV Infections in Minnesota

In this report, the term “new HIV infections” refers to HIV-infected Minnesota residents who were diagnosed in a particular calendar year and reported to the MDH. This includes persons whose first diagnosis of HIV infection is AIDS (AIDS at first diagnosis). HIV infection data are displayed by earliest known date of HIV diagnosis.

In 2013, 301 new HIV diagnoses were reported in Minnesota. This represents a 4% decrease from 2012 when 314 diagnoses were reported.

New HIV Infections by Geography

Historically, about 90% of new HIV infections diagnosed in Minnesota have occurred in Minneapolis, St. Paul and the surrounding seven-county metropolitan area. This has changed slightly over time, and currently about 82% of new diagnoses occur in the metropolitan area surrounding Minneapolis/St. Paul. Additionally, although HIV infection is more common in communities with higher population densities and greater poverty, HIV or AIDS was diagnosed in 34 counties in Minnesota in 2013.

In 2013 there was a 4% decrease statewide in the number of new HIV diagnoses compared to 2012.  There were differences seen in the number of new diagnoses from 2012 to 2013 by geography, with a decrease of 27% and 18% in St. Paul and Minneapolis, respectively and an increase of 22% in the suburbs. This increase in the suburbs was largely due increases in diagnoses among African-born women as well as young women in 2013 compared to 2012. There was a decrease of 2% in the number of diagnoses in Greater Minnesota.

New HIV Infections by Gender and Race/Ethnicity (6)

Since the beginning of the epidemic, males have accounted for a majority of new HIV diagnoses per year. However, the number and the proportion of cases among females have increased over time. In 1990, females accounted for 11% of new HIV infections while24% of new infections occurred among females in 2013.

In 2013 numbers of new cases among males decreased from 2012 by 11%, however, trends in the annual number of new HIV infections diagnosed among males differ by racial/ethnic group. New cases among white (non-Hispanic) males drove the epidemic in the 1980s and early 1990s, and today white males still account for the largest number of new infections, but the proportion of cases that white males account for has decreased since then.  In 2013, white males accounted for 55% of the new HIV diagnoses among men, with 126 diagnoses.

The annual number of cases for African American males peaked in 1992 at 78 and gradually decreased to 33 in 2003. During the past decade, however, the number of cases in this group has trended upward with fluctuation from year to year, with 56 new HIV diagnoses in 2013. This represents a 7% decrease among African-American males from 2012 to 2013.

Increases in the annual number of HIV infections diagnosed among Hispanic and African-born males, in particular, have been recorded since the late 1990s. However, in the past decade, the number of cases among these groups has remained relatively stable, with fluctuation from year to year. After a 84% increase in 2012, a decrease in Hispanic males was observed in 2013, from 35 cases in 2012 to 24 in 2013, representing a decrease of 31%. Nine African-Born males were diagnosed in 2013; this is a decrease of 52% from 2012 when 19 cases were diagnosed. 

Similarly, trends in the annual number of HIV infections diagnosed among females differ by racial/ethnic group. However, unlike males, in 2013 the number of newly infected cases as compared to 2012 increased by 22%. In the beginning of the epidemic, white women accounted for a majority of newly diagnosed cases among females. Since 1991, the number of new infections among women of color has exceeded the number among white women. In 2013 white women made up 23% of the new infections in Minnesota, with 17 new cases. 

Since 2004, the annual number of new infections diagnosed among African American females has decreased slightly overall, although without a clear pattern from year to year. In 2013 there were 15 cases diagnosed among African American women, compared to 17 in 2012. In 2013 the number of new cases among African-born women was 33, accounting for 45% of all new diagnoses among women, this accounted for an increase of 50% among African-born women from 2012.  The annual number of new infections diagnosed among Hispanic, American Indian, Asian, and multi-racial females continues to be quite small (10 cases or fewer per year for each of these groups).

The most recent data illustrate that men and women of color continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Men of color make up approximately 17% of the male population and 42% of the infections diagnosed among men in 2013. White, non-Hispanics make up approximately 83% of the male population in Minnesota and 55% of the new HIV infections diagnosed among men in 2013. Similarly for females, women of color make up approximately 13% of the female population and 73% of the new infections among women. White, non-Hispanics make up approximately 83% of the female population and 23% of new infections among women in 2013. (7)

Note that race is not considered a biological reason for disparities in the occurrence of HIV experienced by persons of color. Race, however, can be considered a marker for other personal and social characteristics that put a person at greater risk for HIV exposure. These characteristics may include, but are not limited to, lower socioeconomic status, less education, and greater prevalence of drug use.

Beginning in 2012, MDH began estimating the number of MSM living in Minnesota. Men who have sex with Men have the highest rate of HIV infection than any other sub-category. In 2013, the estimated rate of HIV infection among MSM was 162.7 per 100,000 population. This is more than 40 times higher than the rate among non-MSM men (3.7 per 100,000 population). It’s important to note that MSM contains cases from all racial/ethnic categories and therefore cannot be directly compared to the rates by race/ethnicity. For more information on how this was estimated, see the HIV Surveillance Technical Notes.

New HIV Infections among Adolescents and Young Adults (8), 1990-2013

In 1990, 10% (45/436) of new HIV infections reported to the MDH were among youth. In 2013 this percentage was 17% (52/301). Just like overall trends, trends among youth differ by gender and race. Since 2001, the number of new cases among young males has been increasing steadily, a few cases per year. However, in 2009 the number of cases increased dramatically by 83 percent compared to 2008, to 80 cases, the highest seen since 1986. In 2013, the number of cases decreased from 55 in 2012 to 41. Of these 41 new cases among adolescent and young adult men, 16 (39%) were known MSM of color. Since 2004, the number of cases among young males has increased by about 78 percent.

Unlike young men, the annual number of new HIV infections diagnosed among young women has remained relatively consistent over time; however an increase was seen in 2013. In 2013 there were 11 cases diagnosed among young women, this accounts for a 175% increase from the four cases diagnosed in 2012. However the number of cases diagnosed in 2013 is still below the ten year average of 14 cases.  Females accounted for 21% (11/52) of new HIV infections diagnosed among adolescents and young adults in 2013.

Overall, young women accounted for 15% (11/74) of new infections among females and young males accounted for 18% (41/227) of new infections among males in 2013. 

Similar to the overall HIV/AIDS epidemic, persons of color account for a disproportionate number of new HIV infections among adolescents and young adults. Among young men, whites accounted for 43% of new HIV infections diagnosed between 2011 and 2013, African Americans accounted for 40%, and Hispanics 12%. American Indians, and Asian/Pacific Islanders made up 4%, 1% of the remaining cases, respectively. Among young women, whites accounted for 41%, African Americans 27%, African-born 23%, American Indians 4%, and Asian/Pacific Islanders 5% of the new infections diagnosed during the same time period.

Starting in 2004, MDH has used a risk re-distribution method to estimate mode of exposure among those cases with unknown risk. For additional details on how this was done please read the HIV Surveillance Technical Notes. All mode of exposure numbers referred to in the text are based on the risk re-distribution.

Men having sex with men (MSM) was the predominant mode of HIV exposure among adolescent and young adult males, accounting for an estimated 94% of the new HIV infections diagnosed between 2011 and 2013, while the joint risk of MSM and injecting drug use (IDU) accounted for an estimated 4% of the cases in the same time period. Heterosexual sex accounted for an estimated 2% of cases.  Heterosexual contact accounted for an estimated 94% of new HIV infections diagnosed among adolescent and young adult females between 2011 and 2013 while IDU accounted for an estimated 6%.

New HIV Infections by Mode of Exposure

Since the beginning, men have driven the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Minnesota and male-to-male sex has been the predominant mode of exposure reported. The number and proportion of new HIV infections attributed to MSM have been decreasing since 1991 reaching an apparent plateau in 2000 at just under 130 cases per year. Since 2000, the number of new cases diagnosed among MSM has increased steadily and in 2013, MSM accounted for 47% of all new infections (62% among males) with 142 cases diagnosed. On a much smaller scale, the numbers of male cases attributed to IDU and MSM/IDU as well as heterosexual contact have remained somewhat stable over the past decade. The number of cases without a specified risk has increased overall for the past decade, accounting for 29% of male cases in 2013.

Throughout the epidemic, heterosexual contact has been the predominant mode of HIV exposure reported among females accounting for 89% of female cases in 2013. IDU is the second most common known mode of transmission, and accounted for 3% of cases among women in 2013. Unspecified risk represented 8% of female cases in 2013. The proportion of cases attributable to a certain mode of exposure differs not only by gender, but also by race. Of the new HIV infections diagnosed among males between 2011 and 2013, MSM or MSM/IDU accounted for an estimated 96% of cases among white males, 93% of cases among Hispanic males, 88% of cases among African American males, and 10% of cases among African-born males. IDU was estimated as a risk in 2% of white male cases and 1% of African American male cases diagnosed during 2011-2013. The number of cases among Asian and American Indian men during the years 2011-2013 was insufficient to make generalizations regarding risk (less than 20 cases in each group).  There were no cases attributed to IDU alone among Hispanic and African-born males during this same time period.

Heterosexual contact accounted for an estimated 98% of cases among African American females, 97% of African-born females, and 85% of white females between 2011 and 2013.

IDU was estimated as a risk for 15% of cases among white, and 2% among African American women. No cases were attributed to IDU among African-born females during this same time period. The small number of cases in 2011-2013 among Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian women (less than 20 cases in each group) is insufficient to make generalizations regarding risk.

Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission

The ability to interrupt the transmission of HIV from mother to child via antiretroviral therapy and appropriate perinatal care is an important accomplishment in the history of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Newborn HIV infection rates range from 25-30% without antiretroviral therapy, but decrease to 1-2% with appropriate medical intervention.

For 15 years the number of births to HIV-infected women increased steadily from 14 in 1996 to 71 in 2009. In 2013, there were 62 births to HIV+ women. The rate of transmission has decreased from 15% between 1994 and 1996 to 0.5% in the past three years, with no HIV+ babies born to HIV+ mothers in Minnesota in 2013.

The rate of transmission in Minnesota between 1982 and 1994 (before widespread use of zidovudine (11) to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission) was 25%. Proper prenatal care, including HIV screening for all pregnant women and appropriate medical intervention for those infected, is a vital element in preventing the spread of HIV.

Populations of Interest:
New HIV Infections among Foreign-born Persons

The number of new HIV infections diagnosed among foreign-born persons in Minnesota has steadily increased from 20 cases in 1990 to 59 cases in 2013. This increase has been largely driven by the increase of cases among African-born persons from 8 cases in 1990 to 42 cases in 2013, as well as, persons from Mexico, Central and South America from 6 cases in 1990 to 16 cases in 2013. Among new HIV infections diagnosed in 2013, 20% were among foreign-born persons. Based on 2010-2012 American Community Survey data, foreign-born persons make up 7% of the total Minnesota population and are, therefore, disproportionately affected by HIV (12).Among African-born this disparity is even more evident, while African-born persons make up just over 1% of the Minnesota population they accounted for 14% of new HIV infections in 2013.

In 2013, the number of foreign-born males decreased substantially to 23 diagnoses from 52 in 2012 (126% decrease). However, the number of foreign-born females diagnosed with HIV increased in 2013 to 36, from 26 in 2012 (28% increase).Females made up 61% of all foreign-born cases newly diagnosed with HIV in Minnesota. Foreign-born females accounted for a much greater percentage of all females diagnosed cases (49%) than did foreign-born cases among males (10%).

Four countries (Liberia, Mexico, Cameroon, and Kenya) accounted for a majority (59%) of new infections among foreign-born persons, however there are 18 countries represented among the 59 new infections in 2013. 

Late Testers: Progression to AIDS within one year of HIV diagnosis

Since 2000, approximately one third of all new HIV infection cases diagnosed in Minnesota have either been AIDS at first diagnosis, or have progressed to an AIDS diagnosis within one year of initial diagnosis with HIV (non-AIDS) infection. As with other characteristics of the HIV epidemic in Minnesota, the proportion of late testers varies by demographic characteristics. The most significant differences occur by race/ethnicity, with the proportion of late testers between 2004 and 2013 among African-born (38%) and Hispanics (39%) being higher than that among whites (28%) and African Americans (24%). Similar data for American Indians and Asian/Pacific Islanders in a single year had fewer than 10 cases and are considered not stable. Differences by age are as expected with the percentage of late testers increasing with age at time of diagnosis. In 2013 (13), 8% of those diagnosed between the ages of 13 and 24 were late testers compared to 37% of those 45 years and older. Finally, the percentage of late testers is also higher among foreign-born cases compared to other cases. In 2013, 42% of foreign-born cases were late testers compared to 26% of US-born cases.

(Last Revised: 4/19/2014)


(1) HIV (non-AIDS) or AIDS at first report. (return to text)

(2) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Statistics and Surveillance Slide Sets accessed April 05, 2013, Slide 13 (return to text)

(3) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Statistics and Surveillance Slide Sets accessed April 05, 2013, Slide 29 (return to text)

(4) This number includes persons who reported Minnesota as their state of residence at the time of their HIV and/or AIDS diagnosis. It also includes persons who may have been diagnosed in a state that does not have HIV reporting and who subsequently moved to Minnesota and were reported here.  HIV-infected persons currently residing in Minnesota, but who resided in another HIV-reporting state at the time of diagnosis are excluded. (return to text)

(5) This number includes persons whose most recently reported state of residence was Minnesota, regardless of residence at time of diagnosis. This estimate does not include persons with undiagnosed HIV infection. (return to text)

(6) Black race was broken down into African-born and African American (Black, not African-born). The numbers exclude persons arriving through the HIV-Positive Refugee Resettlement Program and other refugee/immigrants with an HIV diagnosis prior to arrival. (return to text)

(7) Population estimates based on U.S. Census 2010 data. (return to text)

(8) In this report, adolescents are defined as 13-19 year-olds and young adults as 20-24 year-olds; these two groups are jointly referred to as “youth.” Analyses are performed for adolescents and young adults combined because case numbers are too small to present meaningful data separately for each. (return to text)

(9) Disease Intervention Specialists attempt to contact all persons recently diagnosed with HIV in order to provide HIV education, partner notification, and connect the person with medical care or other resources. (return to text)

(10) MMWR 2001; 50(RR-6):31-40. (return to text)

(11) A common antiretroviral drug. (return to text)

(12) Based on U.S. Census 2010 data, the Minnesota State Demographic Center estimates that there are 380,764 foreign-born persons, including 72,930 African-born persons are living in Minnesota out of a total population of 5,303,925. Because there are many reasons foreign-born persons may not be included in the census count (e.g. difficulties with verbal or written English), these numbers are likely an underestimate of the actual size of the foreign-born population living in Minnesota. (return to text)

(13) Percentage of late testers for 2012 includes only those progressing to AIDS through January 2013. As such, this percentage is likely to increase as additional reports are made to the MDH. (return to text)

Updated Thursday, 03-Jul-2014 09:06:20 CDT