Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is rare in Minnesota, but isolated cases have been reported from various parts of the state. The disease is more common in the eastern, southern and western states. The illness is caused by bacteria called Rickettsia rickettsii, which is transmitted locally by the tick species Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick, also called the wood tick). American dog ticks are found in grassy or wooded areas throughout Minnesota. They are most active from spring thru mid-summer.
Signs and Symptoms
Signs and symptoms include an abrupt onset of fever, malaise, headache, myalgias, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting, and a rash. The typical rash first appears as spots on the wrists and ankles which then spread to the trunk and also sometimes the palms and soles. The rash often appears two to five days after onset of fever. RMSF can result in organ failure and death.
Supportive laboratory findings include thrombocytopenia, increased serum hepatic aminotransferase levels, and hyponatremia.
The illness is treated with tetracycline in adults and children. Treatment should be undertaken with the assistance of an infectious disease specialist. Empiric treatment should be initiated as soon as RMSF is suspected to prevent serious complications or death.
- Rocky Mountain
CDC; Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch web site about Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Attention: Non-MDH link
- Diagnosis and Management of Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Ehrlichiosis, and Anaplasmosis - United States
CDC: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: A Practical Guide for Physicians and Other Health-Care and Public Health Professionals Attention: Non-MDH link
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Minnesota Rules Governing Communicable Diseases require health care providers to report confirmed or suspected cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) within 1 working day.
MDH staff also are available to provide clinical consultation regarding diagnosis and treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases. Call 651-201-5414 for a clinical consultation.