Annual Summary: 2001 Minnesota Sexually Transmitted Disease Statistics

Sources and Limitations of Data

In Minnesota, laboratory-confirmed infections of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid are monitored by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) through a passive, combined physician and laboratory-based surveillance system. State law (Minnesota Rule 4605.7040) requires both physicians and laboratories to report all cases of these four bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) directly to the MDH. Other common sexually transmitted conditions caused by viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), are not reported to the MDH. Factors that impact the completeness and accuracy of the available data on STDs include: level of screening, accuracy of diagnostic tests, and compliance with case reporting. Thus, any changes in STD rates may be due to one of these factors, or due to actual changes in STD occurrence.

Population counts by residence (i.e., state, counties, Minneapolis, and St. Paul), by age, by gender, and by race and Hispanic origin were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau for 1990 and 2000. Population counts for other geographic areas for 1990 and 2000 were calculated from these data. Population counts for 1991 through 1999 were estimated by interpolation between the 1990 and 2000 census data. For 2000 census data, population counts by race include the number of persons by race alone, or in combination with one or more races. Thus, persons who identified themselves by more than one race are "over counted." Also, population counts used to calculate rates for a given year correspond to the prior year; for example, 2001 rates are calculated using 2001 case data and 2000 population counts.

Overview of Statistics and Highlights

Trends in chlamydia, gonorrhea, and primary/secondary syphilis rates (per 100,000 persons) by year of diagnosis for the years 1997 through 2001 are shown in Figure 1. The corresponding number of cases and rates for all reportable bacterial STDs for the same years are presented in Table 1. In Table 2, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and primary/secondary syphilis case numbers and rates by residence, age, gender, and race/ethnicity for 2001 are provided. Finally, chlamydia and gonorrhea case numbers and rates by county for 2001 are shown in Table 3.

In Minnesota, the chlamydia rate remained stable, the gonorrhea rate decreased (by 16%), and the primary/secondary syphilis rate increased (by 133%) for 2001 compared to the rates for 2000. STD rates continue to be highest in the seven county metropolitan area, particularly in the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul. Adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years have the highest rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea, whereas the highest rates for primary/secondary syphilis are among persons in older age groups. For gonorrhea and primary/secondary syphilis, rates are comparable for men and women. Due to more frequent screening among women, their rate of chlamydia infection is more than two times higher than the rate among men. Rates of STDs remain elevated among communities of color. Blacks, American Indians, Hispanics, and Asians typically have rates that are much higher (two to 60 times higher) than rates for whites, depending on the STD and the racial/ethnic group.

Table 1. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, and Chancroid — Minnesota, 1997 - 2001
Disease
1997
Cases
1997
Rate
1998
Cases
1998
Rate
1999
Cases
1999
Rate
2000
Cases
2000
Rate
2001
Cases
2001
Rate
Chlamydia
6,804
145
6,997
147
7,460
155
8,147
168
8,323
169
Gonorrhea
2,438
52
2,716
57
2,830
59
3,189
66
2,701
55
All Stages of Syphilis
118
2.5
78
1.6
72
1.5
81
1.7
134
2.7

Primary/Secondary Syphilis

16
0.3
9
0.2
10
0.2
16
0.3
33
0.7

Early Latent Syphilis

20
0.4
8
0.2
9
0.2
18
0.4
16
0.3

Late Latent Syphilis
(includes neurosyphilis)

82
1.7
61
1.3
52
1.1
45
0.9
80
1.6

Other Syphilis

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0.1

Congenital Syphilis
(rate per 100,000 live births)

0
0
0
0
1
1.5
2
3
2
3

Chancroid

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0


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Table 2. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Primary/Secondary Syphilis by Residence, Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity — Minnesota, 2001
Group

Chlamydia
Cases

Chlamydia
Rate
Gonorrhea
Cases
Gonorrhea
Rate
Primary/
Secondary
Syphilis
Cases
Primary/
Secondary
Syphilis
Rate
Residence
Minneapolis
2,628
687
1,303
341
23
6
St. Paul
1,530
533
565
197
5
1.7
Suburban (1)
2,058
104
533
27
5
0.3
Greater Minnesota
2,107
93
300
13
0
0
Age
<10 yrs
4
1
0
0
0
0
10-14 yrs
124
33
40
11
0
0
15-19 yrs
2,857
763
781
209
2
0.5
20-24 yrs
3,104
963
834
259
4
1.2
25-29 yrs
1,237
387
448
140
4
1.3
30-34 yrs
536
152
253
72
4
1.1
35-44 yrs
392
48
270
33
16
1.9
45+ yrs
69
4
75
5
3
0.2
Gender
Male
2,313
95
1,240
51
17
0.7
Female
6,010
242
1,461
59
16
0.6
Race(2)/Ethnicity
White
3,329
75
658
15
7
0.2
Black
2,574
1,268
1,460
719
24
11.8
American Indian
347
428
70
86
1
1.2
Asian
403
240
54
32
0
0
Other
554
622
107
120
0
0
Unknown (3)
1,116
---
352
---
1
---
Hispanic (4)
756
527
113
79
0
0
TOTAL
8,323
169
2,701
55
33
0.7


(1) Suburban is defined as the seven county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott, and Washington Counties), excluding cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul
(2) Race categories include persons by race alone, or in combination with one or more races
(3) No comparable population data available to calculate rates
(4) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race

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Table 3. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea by County — Minnesota, 2001
County
Chlamydia Cases
Chlamydia Rate
Gonorrhea Cases
Gonorrhea Rate
County
Chlamydia Cases
Chlamydia Rate
Gonorrhea Cases
Gonorrhea Rate
Aitkin
6
39
1
7
Marshall
7
69
0
0
Anoka
343
115
68
23
Martin
5
23
0
0
Becker
46
153
12
40
Meeker
8
35
1
4
Beltrami
80
202
5
13
Mille Lacs
10
45
0
0
Benton
33
96
9
26
Morrison
16
51
1
3
Big Stone
1
17
0
0
Mower
71
184
11
29
Blue Earth
100
179
18
32
Murray
8
87
0
0
Brown
13
48
3
11
Nicollet
9
30
1
3
Carlton
31
98
5
16
Nobles
24
115
1
5
Carver
23
33
12
17
Norman
3
40
0
0
Cass
30
111
4
15
Olmsted
172
138
20
16
Chippewa
12
92
1
8
Otter Tail
21
37
3
5
Chisago
28
68
8
20
Pennington
22
162
0
0
Clay
82
160
8
16
Pine
11
42
3
11
Clearwater
8
95
0
0
Pipestone
5
51
1
10
Cook
2
39
0
0
Polk
32
102
2
6
Cottonwood
8
66
0
0
Pope
5
45
0
0
Crow Wing
44
80
5
9
Ramsey
1,723
337
615
120
Dakota
356
100
80
23
Red Lake
2
47
0
0
Dodge
13
73
1
6
Redwood
6
36
1
6
Douglas
25
76
1
3
Renville
7
41
0
0
Faribault
6
37
0
0
Rice
39
69
6
11
Fillmore
6
28
1
5
Rock
7
72
2
21
Freeborn
29
89
1
3
Roseau
6
37
1
6
Goodhue
31
70
6
14
St. Louis
240
120
58
29
Grant
3
48
1
16
Scott
67
75
10
11
Hennepin
3,523
316
1,573
141
Sherburne
33
51
6
9
Houston
14
71
3
15
Sibley
4
26
0
0
Hubbard
8
44
2
11
Stearns
244
183
46
35
Isanti
19
61
1
3
Steele
33
98
4
12
Itasca
58
132
3
7
Stevens
2
20
0
0
Jackson
0
0
1
9
Swift
7
59
1
8
Kanabec
5
33
1
7
Todd
22
90
3
12
Kandiyohi
54
131
2
5
Traverse
2
48
0
0
Kittson
0
0
0
0
Wabasha
13
60
1
5
Koochiching
6
42
0
0
Wadena
5
37
0
0
Lac Qui Parle
3
37
1
12
Waseca
6
31
0
0
Lake
10
90
1
9
Washington
181
90
43
21
Lake of the Woods
1
22
0
0
Watonwan
4
34
1
8
LeSueur
10
39
1
4
Wilkin
3
42
0
0
Lincoln
2
31
0
0
Winona
48
96
6
12
Lyon
31
122
1
4
Wright
48
53
9
10
McLeod
11
32
3
9
Yellow Medicine
5
45
0
0
Mahnomen
23
443
1
19

Data Archive: Previous STD Annual Reports

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Updated Monday, June 02, 2014 at 02:26PM