Annual Summary: 2005 Minnesota Sexually Transmitted Disease Statistics

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On this page:
Overall Summary
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
Primary & Secondary Syphilis
Summary Points
Sources and Limitations of Data
Table 1. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, and Chancroid
Table 2a. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender
Table 2b. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Gonorrhea by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender
Table 2c. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Primary & Secondary (P&S) Syphilis by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender
Table 3. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea by County of Residence

Overall Summary:

In 2005 the number of reported bacterial sexually transmitted diseases reached their highest level ever with 15,875 cases reported. This represents an overall increase of eight percent from the previous year and is part of a continued trend observed over the past five years. The rate increases varied by disease, with chlamydia rates increasing by 5 percent and gonorrhea and primary/secondary syphilis increasing by 18 and 159 percent, respectively.

The 2005 STD surveillance data are available both in a slide presentation and a series of tables on the Minnesota Department of Health web site. The number of cases and rates (per 100,000 persons) for all reportable bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) for the years 2001 through 2005 are presented in Table 1 by year of diagnosis. Tables 2a-c display chlamydia, gonorrhea and primary/secondary syphilis case numbers and rates by residence, age, gender, and race/ethnicity for 2005. Chlamydia and gonorrhea case numbers and rates by county for 2005 are shown in Table 3.

Chlamydia:

Over the past 10 years the chlamydia rate in Minnesota has doubled and this increase has been observed across gender, geographical areas, age and race groups. The increases seen over the past 10 years are likely due to a combination of factors including the use of improved STD testing technology, improved screening practices by clinicians, the addition of an active surveillance component to Minnesota's STD surveillance system, and an actual increase of the level of disease in the population. However, given the continued increases over time, true increases in the level of disease are most likely the driving factor. Chlamydia rates are highest among women (355 per 100,000), Blacks (1,335 per 100,000), and persons aged 20-24 years of age (1,496 per 100,000). Additionally, the chlamydia rate is highest among Minneapolis residents (717 per 100,000), although in the past year the greatest increases occurred among suburban (9%) and Greater Minnesota (6%) residents. Persons aged 15-24 years accounted for seventy percent (70%) of reported chlamydia cases. Racial disparities continue to be an issue in STDs, with the chlamydia rate among Blacks being 12 times that among Whites. Disparities are also evident for other racial/ethnic groups with the rates for American Indians, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics being 5, 3, and 6 times higher than the rate among Whites, respectively.

Gonorrhea:

Over the past 5 years there has been a slight but steady increase in Minnesota's gonorrhea rate. In 2005 the number of reported gonorrhea cases was the highest it has been since 1990. As with chlamydia, gonorrhea rates are highest among females (77 per 100,000), Blacks (775 per 100,000), and persons aged 20-24 years of age (320 per 100,000). Also as with chlamydia, the gonorrhea rate is highest among Minneapolis residents, however unlike chlamydia the greatest increases in gonorrhea occurred among Minneapolis and St. Paul residents. While the gonorrhea rate is higher among women than men, the difference in the rates is much smaller than for chlamydia. This can be explained by the fact that gonorrhea is more likely to be symptomatic than chlamydia and therefore men are more likely to get tested. Disparities between Whites and persons of color are also evident in the gonorrhea rates with rates among Blacks, American Indians, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders being 35, 5, 4, and 1.5 times higher respectively than the rate among Whites.

An additional concern with gonorrhea has been the emergence of quinolone-resistant gonorrhea (QRNG) in Minnesota. The prevalence for QRNG has increased five fold from 1.5% in 2002 to 6.8% in 2005. Of particular concern is the high prevalence among gay/bisexual males, which has increased from zero in 2002, to 30% in 2005. Additionally twelve percent of cases among gay/bisexual males were also infected with HIV. CDC no longer recommends the use of fluoroquinolones to treat gonorrhea in gay/bisexual males or for persons that may have acquired the infection in Hawaii, California and other areas with high QNRG prevalence, see: CDC's MMWR Weekly, April 30, 2004 / 53(16);335-338. Attention: Non-MDH link

Primary & Secondary Syphilis:

The number of cases of primary/secondary syphilis increased from 27 in 2004 to 70 in 2005. This represents the highest number of primary/secondary cases since 2002 when the beginning of a syphilis outbreak among gay/bisexual men was observed. Additionally, cases of early latent syphilis also increased from 21 to 46. Overall the number of cases of early syphilis (which includes primary, secondary, and early latent stages) increased from 48 to 115 between 2004 and 2005. Gay/bisexual males continued to account for the majority (92%) of cases among males. Additionally, thirty-eight percent of gay/bisexual males diagnosed with early syphilis were co-infected with HIV. Similar trends have been observed in other parts of the country. MDH continues to collaborate with local physicians, clinics, and community-based organizations to increase community awareness and syphilis testing among MSM.

Summary Points:

  • Between 2004-2005, cases of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and P&S Syphilis increased to their highest levels ever
  • STD rates continue to be highest in Minneapolis and St. Paul. However Chlamydia rates increased most in the suburbs (9%) and Greater MN (6%).
  • STD rates are highest among persons of color
  • Chlamydia (7 in 10) and gonorrhea (5 in 10) rates are highest among adolescents and young adults; syphilis rates are highest among adults
  • The number of early syphilis cases more than doubled, with cases increasing almost three fold among gay/bisexual men
  • Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea has increased five fold between 2002 and 2005, specifically among gay/bisexual men

Sources and Limitations of Data:

In Minnesota, laboratory-confirmed infections of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid are monitored by the MDH through a combined physician and laboratory-based surveillance system. State law (Minnesota Rule 4605.7040) requires both physicians and laboratories to report all cases of these four bacterial STDs directly to the MDH. Other common sexually transmitted conditions caused by viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), are not reported to the MDH. Factors that impact the completeness and accuracy of the available data on STDs include: level of screening, individual test-seeking behavior, accuracy of diagnostic tests, and compliance with case reporting. Thus, any changes in STD rates may be due to one of these factors or due to actual changes in STD occurrence.

Population counts used to calculate rates by residence, by gender, and by race/ethnicity were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. Rates were calculated using each year’s case data and population counts from the 2000 Census. The 2000 Census data on race include the number of persons by race alone or in combination with one or more races. Thus, persons who identified themselves by more than one race are “over counted” in the denominators.

Table 1. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, and Chancroid
-- Minnesota, 2001 - 2005

 

2001

2002

2003
2004
2005

Disease

Cases

Rate

Cases

Rate

Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate

Chlamydia

8,369

170

10,118

206

10,807
220
11,601
236
12,187
248

Gonorrhea

2,708

55

3,050

62

3,237
66
2,957
60
3,481
71

All Stages of Syphilis

135

2.7

149

3.0

198
4.0
145
2.9
207
4.2

Primary/Secondary Syphilis

33

0.7

59

1.2

48
1.0
27
0.5
70
1.4

Early Latent Syphilis

16

0.3

23

0.5

45
0.9
21
0.4
46
0.9

Late Latent Syphilis

81

1.6

65

1.3

105
2.1
95
1.9
84
1.7

Other Syphilis

3

0.1

1

0.0

0
0.00
1
0.02
5
0.1

Congenital Syphilis (1)

2

3.0

1

1.5

0
0.0
1
1.4
2
2.8

Chancroid

0

0.0

0

0.0

0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities.
(1) Congenital syphilis rate per 100,000 live births

Table 2a. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender - Minnesota 2005
  Chlamydia
 
Males
Females
Total (I)
Group
Cases
%
Cases
%
Cases
%

Rate

Residence (II)
Minneapolis
895
27%
1,846
21%
2,742
22%
717
St. Paul
486
14%
1,230
14%
1,718
14%
598
Suburban (III)
1,002
30%
2,617
30%
3,621
30%
184
Greater Minnesota
817
24%
2,776
31%
3,597
30%
158
Age
< 15 yrs
15
0%
117
1%
132
1%
12
15-19 yrs
582
17%
3,118
35%
3,703
30%
989
20-24 yrs
1,320
39%
3,501
40%
4,823
40%
1496
25-29 yrs
711
21%
1,269
14%
1,982
16%
620
30-34 yrs
344
10%
477
5%
822
7%
233
35-39 yrs
183
5%
180
2%
363
3%
88
40-44 yrs
116
3%
81
1%
197
2%
48
45-49 yrs
57
2%
47
1%
105
1%
29
50-54 yrs
18
1%
16
0%
34
0%
11
55+ yrs
18
1%
8
0%
26
0%
3
Race (IV)/Ethnicity
White
1,131
34%
3,843
44%
4,980
41%
115
Black
1,222
36%
1,891
21%
3,115
26%
1535
American Indian
58
2%
357
4%
415
3%
512
Asian/PI
114
3%
361
4%
475
4%
282
Other
63
2%
184
2%
248
2%
x
Unknown (V)
776
23%
2,178
25%
2,954
24%
x
Hispanic (VI)
273
8%
621
7%
895
7%
624
TOTAL
3,364
100%
8,814
100%
12,187
100%
248
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities
(I) Total includes 9 cases of Chlamydia diagnosed in Transgendered persons
(II) Residence missing for 509 cases of Chlamydia
(III) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(IV) U.S. Census 2000 data necessary to calculate race-specific rates (specifically a breakdown of the state population by "Race alone or in Combination with one or more races" by gender) is not available. When these data become available this table will be updated.
(V) No comparable population data available to calculate rates.
(VI) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Table 2b. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Gonorrhea by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender - Minnesota 2005
  Gonorrhea
 
Males
Females
Total (I)
Group
Cases
%
Cases
%
Cases
%

Rate

Residence (II)
Minneapolis
713
45%
560
29%
1,274
37%
333
St. Paul
281
18%
401
21%
684
20%
238
Suburban (III)
355
23%
542
28%
898
26%
46
Greater Minnesota
157
10%
336
18%
493
14%
22
Age
< 15 yrs
8
1%
28
1%
36
1%
3
15-19 yrs
182
12%
615
32%
797
23%
213
20-24 yrs
415
26%
616
32%
1,033
30%
320
25-29 yrs
312
20%
324
17%
636
18%
199
30-34 yrs
196
12%
149
8%
346
10%
98
35-39 yrs
160
10%
68
4%
228
7%
55
40-44 yrs
146
9%
58
3%
204
6%
50
45-49 yrs
73
5%
32
2%
105
3%
29
50-54 yrs
37
2%
8
0%
45
1%
15
55+ yrs
42
3%
8
0%
51
1%
5
Race (IV)/Ethnicity
White
383
24%
591
31%
976
28%
23
Black
857
55%
715
38%
1,574
45%
775
American Indian
30
2%
66
3%
96
3%
118
Asian/PI
16
1%
37
2%
53
2%
31
Other
11
1%
60
3%
71
2%
x
Unknown (V)
274
17%
437
23%
711
20%
x
Hispanic (VI)
66
4%
56
3%
122
4%
85
TOTAL
1,571
100%
1,906
100%
3,481
100%
71
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities
(I) Total includes 4 cases of Gonorrhea diagnosed in Transgendered persons
(II) Residence missing for 132 cases of Gonorrhea
(III) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(IV) U.S. Census 2000 data necessary to calculate race-specific rates (specifically a breakdown of the state population by "Race alone or in Combination with one or more races" by gender) is not available. When these data become available this table will be updated.
(V) No comparable population data available to calculate rates.
(VI) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Table 2c. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Primary & Secondary (P&S) Syphilis by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender - Minnesota 2005
  Primary & Secondary (P&S) Syphilis
 
Males
Females
Total (I)
Group
Cases
%
Cases
%
Cases
%

Rate

Residence (II)
Minneapolis
41
61%
1
50%
42
60%
11.0
St. Paul
7
10%
0
0%
8
11%
2.8
Suburban (III)
16
24%
1
50%
17
24%
0.9
Greater Minnesota
3
4%
0
0%
3
4%
0.1
Age
< 15 yrs
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
0.0
15-19 yrs
0
0%
1
50%
1
1%
0.3
20-24 yrs
7
10%
0
0%
7
10%
2.2
25-29 yrs
9
13%
0
0%
9
13%
2.8
30-34 yrs
9
13%
0
0%
9
13%
2.5
35-39 yrs
15
22%
0
0%
15
21%
3.6
40-44 yrs
11
16%
1
50%
13
19%
3.2
45-49 yrs
7
10%
0
0%
7
10%
1.9
50-54 yrs
8
12%
0
0%
8
11%
2.7
55+ yrs
1
1%
0
0%
1
1%
0.1
Race (IV)/Ethnicity
White
54
81%
0
0%
55
79%
1.3
Black
6
9%
2
100%
8
11%
3.9
American Indian
1
1%
0
0%
1
1%
1.2
Asian/PI
1
1%
0
0%
1
1%
0.6
Other
4
6%
0
0%
4
6%
x
Unknown (V)
1
1%
0
0%
1
1%
x
Hispanic (VI)
5
7%
0
0%
5
7%
3.5
TOTAL
67
100%
2
100%
70
100%
1.4
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities
(I) Total includes 1 case of P&S Syphilis diagnosed in a Transgendered person
(II) Residence missing for 0 cases of P&S Syphilis
(III) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(IV) U.S. Census 2000 data necessary to calculate race-specific rates (specifically a breakdown of the state population by "Race alone or in Combination with one or more races" by gender) is not available. When these data become available this table will be updated.
(V) No comparable population data available to calculate rates.
(VI) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Table 3. Number of Cases and Rates (1) (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea by County of Residence -- Minnesota, 2005
 
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
 
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
County
Cases
Rate Cases
Rate
County
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Aitkin
6
39
0
-
Marshall
3
-
0
-
Anoka
530
178
122
41
Martin
15
69
0
-
Becker
39
130
4
-
Meeker
27
119
4
-
Beltrami
180
454
22
55
Mille Lacs
28
125
8
36
Benton
45
131
5
15
Morrison
27
85
2
-
Big Stone
0
-
0
-
Mower
86
223
11
28
Blue Earth
224
400
45
80
Murray
6
65
0
-
Brown
18
67
1
-
Nicollet
27
91
3
-
Carlton
41
129
7
22
Nobles
33
158
0
-
Carver
51
73
6
9
Norman
2
-
0
-
Cass
50
184
0
-
Olmsted
289
233
43
35
Chippewa
15
115
1
-
Otter Tail
25
44
2
-
Chisago
85
207
8
19
Pennington
20
147
2
-
Clay
69
135
8
16
Pine
24
90
0
-
Clearwater
10
119
0
-
Pipestone
7
71
0
-
Cook
4
-
2
-
Polk
32
102
1
-
Cottonwood
20
164
0
-
Pope
3
-
0
-
Crow Wing
69
125
16
29
Ramsey
2038
399
775
152
Dakota
688
193
142
40
Red Lake
8
186
2
-
Dodge
13
73
0
-
Redwood
19
113
3
-
Douglas
17
52
0
-
Renville
18
105
4
-
Faribault
24
148
2
-
Rice
84
148
15
26
Fillmore
16
76
3
-
Rock
2
-
0
-
Freeborn
46
141
4
-
Roseau
13
80
1
-
Goodhue
80
181
8
18
St. Louis
477
238
81
40
Grant
3
-
0
-
Scott
180
201
16
18
Hennepin
4307
386
1728
155
Sherburne
86
134
18
28
Houston
19
96
2
-
Sibley
7
46
0
-
Hubbard
16
87
1
-
Stearns
380
285
66
50
Isanti
23
74
6
19
Steele
52
154
5
15
Itasca
72
164
7
16
Stevens
5
50
1
-
Jackson
9
80
0
-
Swift
10
84
3
-
Kanabec
9
60
3
-
Todd
11
45
0
-
Kandiyohi
118
286
8
19
Traverse
1
-
0
-
Kittson
1
-
0
-
Wabasha
25
116
1
-
Koochiching
16
111
2
-
Wadena
9
66
0
-
Lac qui Parle
5
62
0
-
Waseca
21
108
2
-
Lake
15
136
1
-
Washington
287
143
67
33
Lake of the Woods
5
111
0
-
Watonwan
19
160
4
-
Le Sueur
22
87
0
-
Wilkin
4
-
0
-
Lincoln
3
-
0
-
Winona
90
180
13
26
Lyon
49
193
6
24
Wright
99
110
18
20
McLeod
30
86
4
-
Yellow Medicine
12
108
3
-
Mahnomen
5
96
1
-
         
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities
Rates not computed for counties with fewer than 5 cases.

Data Archive: Previous STD Annual Reports

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Updated Tuesday, August 05, 2014 at 10:21AM