Annual Summary: 2006 Minnesota Sexually Transmitted Disease Statistics

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On this page:
Overall Summary
Sources of Data
Limitations of Data
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
Primary & Secondary Syphilis
Summary Points
Data Tables
Data Archive

Overall Summary:

The 2006 Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Statistics includes summary of surveillance data for Minnesota’s reportable STDs — chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid. In Minnesota, sexually transmitted diseases are the most commonly reported communicable diseases and account for over 60% of all notifiable diseases reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). In 2006, the number of reportable bacterial sexually transmitted diseases reached their highest level ever with 16,428 cases reported. This represents an overall increase of two percent from the previous year and is part of a continued trend observed over the past ten years. In 2006, the change in incidence rate varied by disease, with chlamydia rates increasing by 5 percent and gonorrhea and primary/secondary syphilis decreasing by 6 and 34 percent, respectively.

The 2006 STD surveillance data provides a comprehensive view of STD trends and current morbidity in Minnesota; a more detailed summary of data is available in a slide presentation on the MDH STD Statistics web page.

Data Tables:

List of tables included in this report:
Table 1. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, and Chancroid
Table 2a. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender
Table 2b. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Gonorrhea by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender
Table 2c. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Primary & Secondary Syphilis by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender
Table 3. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea by County of Residence

Sources of Data:

STD Case Reporting
In Minnesota, laboratory-confirmed infections of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid are monitored by the MDH through a combined physician and laboratory-based surveillance system.  State law (Minnesota Rule 4605.7040) requires both physicians and laboratories to report diagnosed cases for these four bacterial STDs directly to the MDH. Other common sexually transmitted conditions such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are not reported to the MDH. 

Partner Services Program
All early syphilis cases reported to the MDH are referred to the Partner Services Program for a follow up to conduct medical evaluation and to ensure treatment of patients and their sexual partners. Additional surveillance data is collected through this process including information on sexual behavior and drug use.

Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP)
As part of the national Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), the MDH collects antimicrobial resistance data on Neisseria Gonorrhea to monitor changes in trend overtime. The MDH collaborates with two STD clinics, Red Door Clinic in Minneapolis and Room 111 in Saint Paul, to submit gonococcal isolates on a monthly basis. Additional data including socio-demographic, sexual behavioral, and drug use among patients selected are also submitted to the MDH on a monthly basis.

Minnesota Infertility Prevention Project (MIPP)
Minnesota participates in the national Infertility Prevention Project (IPP) funded by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to monitor the prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis in a select age group. The MDH funds clinics across MN, including STD, family planning, adolescent, and community clinics that screen15 to 24 year olds for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Data collected by all participating clinics in Minnesota is reported to the MDH and include socio-demographic data as well as number and results of all tests performed.

Limitations of Data:

Several factors impact the completeness and accuracy of MDH’s STD surveillance data including compliance with and completeness of case reporting among healthcare providers and laboratories. Clinically diagnosed cases, presumptively treated cases, and asymptomatic cases with no STD related illnesses may be under reported through the STD surveillance system. Furthermore, STD cases reported by laboratories lacking subsequent provider reporting may be excluded from the STD surveillance statistics. Majority of laboratory case reports originate from laboratories that do not routinely collect demographic and clinical information required for STD surveillance. In 2002, the MDH implemented a process by which providers are actively reminded to submit demographic and clinical information missing from cases reported solely through laboratories. Additional factors affecting validity of the STD surveillance data include: level of STD screening, individual test-seeking behavior and accuracy of diagnostic tests. Thus, changes in STD rates may be due to one or more of these factors or due to actual changes in the incidence of STDs in the population.

Population counts used to calculate incidence rates by residence (i.e., state, counties, Minneapolis, and Saint Paul), by age, by gender, and by race/ethnicity were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. Incident rates (number of reported cases/population) were calculated using yearly case data and population counts from the 2000 census. Population counts for 1991 to 1999 were estimated by interpolation between the 1990 and 2000 census data. The 2000 Census data on race include the number of persons by race alone, or in combination with one or more races. Thus, persons who identified themselves by more than one race are “over counted” in the denominators.

Chlamydia:

Chlamydia is the most commonly reported communicable disease in Minnesota. Between 1996 and 2006, the incidence of chlamydia in Minnesota has more than doubled from 115 to 263 per 100,000 persons. In this same time period, increases were seen across all gender, geographical areas, age and race groups. The rates almost tripled among men (54 to 152 per 100,000 persons) and more than doubled among females (175 to 372 per 100,000 persons). Among 25 to 29 year olds, the incidence rate increased from 214 to 723 per 100,000 persons. In addition, the incidence rates doubled among whites, Hispanics and Pacific Islanders and increased by 61% and 67% among blacks and American Indians, respectively. In addition to an increase of disease in the population, other factors may have contributed to the increases seen over the past 10 years including increased reporting by providers, use of improved STD diagnostic tools, improved screening practices by clinicians and the addition of an active surveillance component to the MDH’s STD surveillance system.

In 2006, the overall incidence rates of chlamydia increased by 5% and were highest among women (372 per 100,000), blacks (1,778 per 100,000), and 20 to 24 year olds (1,549 per 100,000). The rates increased by 8% among males and 3% among females. Among adolescents (15-19 year olds) and young adults (20 to 24 year olds), the rates increased by 3% and 2%, respectively. Greatest increase across age groups was seen among 25-29 year olds where the incidence rates increased by 15% (628 to 723 per 100,000 persons). Across geographic areas, the City of Minneapolis had the highest incidence rate (717 per 100,000), but the greatest increases in 2006 were seen in Saint Paul (11%) and the Suburban counties (9%). Although rates increased across all race groups with the exception of American Indians, highest increases were seen among blacks (12%) and Hispanics (8%). Thus, racial disparities continue to persist in Minnesota with the incidence of chlamydia among blacks being 15 times that among whites. Disparities are also evident among other racial/ethnic groups compared to whites; incidence rates among American Indians, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics were 4, 3, and 6 times higher than the rate among whites, respectively.

Gonorrhea:

In ten years, the overall incidence of gonorrhea in Minnesota increased steadily from 56 per 100,000 persons in 1996 to 67 per 100,000 persons in 2006. As with chlamydia, the incidence of infection was higher among some populations compared to others. The rates increased by 11% among males and 28% among females. Across age groups, the rates increased by 41% among 20 to 24 year olds and 58% among 25 to 29 year olds. The overall rates also increased among all race groups except blacks with 29%, 44%, 53%, and 41% increase seen among whites, American Indians, Asians/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics, respectively. During this period, blacks continued to have the highest gonorrhea incidence rates compared to other race groups.

In 2006 the incidence rate of gonorrhea decreased by 6% from 71 per 100,000 persons to 67 per 100,000 persons. As with chlamydia, gonorrhea rates were highest among females (73 per 100,000), blacks (842 per 100,000), and 20 to 24 years olds (325 per 100,000). The rates decreased by 6% among both males and females. Among adolescents (15 to 19 year olds) and young adults (20-24 year olds), the rates increased by 1%. Although the Cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul accounted for the highest rates of infection, incidence rates decreased across all geographic areas; the greatest decrease was seen in Greater Minnesota where the rates decreased by 15%. Compared to Chlamydia, greater racial disparities in gonococcal infections continue to persist in Minnesota with an incidence rate among blacks being 47 times that among whites. These racial disparities are also evident among other racial/ethnic minorities where the incidence rates among American Indian, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Hispanics are 7, 1.5, and 6 times greater than whites, respectively.

Although the overall incidence of gonorrhea infection in Minnesota remained stable over the past ten years, the emergence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria Gonorrhea (QRNG) has become a particular concern. The first QRNG isolates were identified in 2002 when 4 of the 268 isolates tested through the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) were resistant to Ciprofloxacin. Subsequently, the overall prevalence of QRNG increased from 1.5% in 2002 to 5.8% in 2006. Between 2005 and 2006, the prevalence of QRNG decreased by 1%. In 2006, all QRNG cases identified were male, 68% were white and 68% were 29 years old or younger. In addition, 89% of the cases were among gay/bisexual males with a QRNG prevalence of 27% compared to a prevalence of 0.8% among heterosexuals. Thus, sexual behavior continues to be an important risk factor that drives the overall prevalence of QRNG in Minnesota.

Primary & Secondary Syphilis:

Since 1996 the incidence rates of primary/secondary syphilis in Minnesota remained stable until 2002 when an outbreak was observed among gay/bisexual males and the overall rate increased from 0.7 to 1.2 per 100,000 persons. Subsequently, the rates decreased to 0.5 per 100,000 persons in 2004 and in 2005, once again the rates increased and almost tripled from 0.5 to 1.4 per 100,000 persons. In addition, the number of early syphilis cases (primary, secondary, and early latent stages) increased from 48 in 2004 to 115 in 2005. Gay/bisexual males accounted for majority (92%) of cases among males. During this time period, the disparity between males and females continued and demonstrated that the incidence of syphilis in Minnesota was primarily driven by gay/bisexual males.

In 2006, the overall incidence rate of primary/secondary syphilis decreased from 1.4 to 1.0 per 100,000 persons. The number of cases among males decreased from 68 in 2005 to 43 in 2006 while among females, the number increased from 2 to 4 cases. Decreases in cases were observed across all geographic areas, however compared to other areas, the City of Minneapolis remains to account for majority of cases (62%). The incidence of primary/secondary syphilis infection also decreased across most age groups with the greatest decrease seen among 40-49 year olds, from 20 cases in 2005 to 11 in 2006. Although the incidence of primary/secondary syphilis decreased across all racial groups, whites continued to account for most cases (73%) reported in 2006.

The overall number of early syphilis cases also decreased in 2006, however, the number of early latent cases increased by 23%. The incidence doubled among women (from 7 cases in 2005 to 14 cases in 2006) and decreased by 18% among males. Of all cases reported, 88% were among males and 89% of these were gay/bisexual males. 78% of all gay/bisexual males were white and 55% were between the ages of 25 and 39 years old with a mean age of 34. In addition, 76% of them lived in Hennepin County and 65% in the City of Minneapolis.

Summary Points:

  • Between 2005 and 2006, the incidence rates of chlamydia increased by 5%; gonorrhea and primary/secondary syphilis rates decreased by 6% and 34%, respectively.
  • The incidence rates of chlamydia increased by 8% among males and 3% among females; gonorrhea rates decreased by 6% both among males and females.
  • Although STD rates continue to be highest in the City of Minneapolis, the highest increase of chlamydia rates were seen in Saint Paul (11%) and the Suburban Counties (9%).
  • STD racial disparities continue to persist in Minnesota with highest rates being reported among persons of color.
  • Adolescents and young adults accounted for 69% of chlamydia and 56% of gonorrhea cases reported in 2006.
  • While the overall number of early syphilis cases decreased in 2006, the number of early latent cases increased by 23%. The incidence doubled among women and decreased by 18% among males.
  • Gay/bisexual males continue to drive the incidence of syphilis in Minnesota and accounted for 89% of all early syphilis cases reported among males.
  • In 2006, the overall prevalence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria Gonorrhea (QRNG) decreased by 1%; 89% of the cases were among gay/bisexual males with a QRNG prevalence of 27%; among heterosexuals, the overall QRNG prevalence was 0.8%.

Data Tables

Table 1. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, and Chancroid
-- Minnesota, 2002 - 2006

 

2002

2003
2004
2005
2006

Disease

Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate

Chlamydia

10,118
206
10,803
220
11,647
237
12,359
251
12,935
263

Gonorrhea

3,050
62
3,237
66
2,975
60
3,504
71
3,303
67

All Stages of Syphilis

149
3.0
198
4.0
148
3.0
210
4.3
190
3.9

Primary/Secondary Syphilis

59
1.2
48
1.0
27
0.5
71
1.4
47
1.0

Early Latent Syphilis

23
0.5
45
0.9
21
0.4
47
1.0
58
1.2

Late Latent Syphilis

64
1.3
101
2.1
95
1.9
85
1.7
79
1.6

Other Syphilis (1)

2
0.0
4
0.1
4
0.1
5
0.1
4
0.1

Congenital Syphilis (2)

1
1.5
0
0.0
1
1.4
2
2.8
2
2.8

Chancroid

0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities;
U.S. Census 2000 data is used to calculate rates
(1) Includes neurosyphilis and unknown latent stages of syphilis
(2) Congenital syphilis rate per 100,000 live births

Table 2a. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender - Minnesota 2006
  Chlamydia
 
Males
Females
Total (1)
Group
Cases
%
Cases
%
Cases
%

Rate

Residence (2)
Minneapolis
997
27%
1,866
20%
2,863
22%
748
St. Paul
573
16%
1,353
15%
1,926
15%
671
Suburban (3)
1,124
30%
2,901
31%
4,026
31%
204
Greater Minnesota
842
23%
2,752
30%
3,595
28%
158
Age
< 15 yrs
20
1%
109
1%
129
1%
12
15-19 yrs
666
18%
3,195
35%
3,862
30%
1,032
20-24 yrs
1,354
37%
3,642
39%
4,996
39%
1,549
25-29 yrs
879
24%
1,432
15%
2,312
18%
723
30-34 yrs
376
10%
490
5%
866
7%
245
35-39 yrs
172
5%
208
2%
380
3%
92
40-44 yrs
105
3%
96
1%
201
2%
49
45-49 yrs
75
2%
38
0%
113
1%
31
50-54 yrs
23
1%
22
0%
45
0%
15
55+ yrs
21
1%
10
0%
31
0%
3
Race/Ethnicity
White
1,308
35%
4,121
45%
5,430
42%
126
Black
1,360
37%
2,248
24%
3,609
28%
1,778
American Indian
58
2%
357
4%
415
3%
512
Asian/PI
116
3%
389
4%
505
4%
300
Other (4) (5)
116
3%
387
4%
503
4%
x
Unknown (5)
737
20%
1,737
19%
2,474
19%
x
Hispanic (6)
325
9%
672
7%
997
8%
695
TOTAL
3,691
100%
9,242
100%
12,935
100%
263
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities
U.S. Census 2000 data is used to calculate rates
(1) Total includes 2 cases of Chlamydia diagnosed in Transgendered persons
(2) Residence missing for 525 cases of Chlamydia
(3) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(4) Includes persons reported with more than one race
(5) No comparable population data available to calculate rates.
(6) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Table 2b. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Gonorrhea by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender - Minnesota 2006
  Gonorrhea
 
Males
Females
Total
Group
Cases
%
Cases
%
Cases
%

Rate

Residence (1)
Minneapolis
665
45%
602
33%
1,267
38%
331
St. Paul
279
19%
365
20%
644
19%
224
Suburban (2)
337
23%
493
27%
830
25%
42
Greater Minnesota
139
9%
281
15%
420
13%
18
Age
< 15 yrs
3
0%
34
2%
37
1%
3
15-19 yrs
210
14%
599
33%
809
24%
216
20-24 yrs
416
28%
631
35%
1,047
32%
325
25-29 yrs
320
21%
283
16%
603
18%
189
30-34 yrs
192
13%
117
6%
309
9%
87
35-39 yrs
124
8%
69
4%
193
6%
47
40-44 yrs
105
7%
47
3%
152
5%
37
45-49 yrs
71
5%
25
1%
96
3%
26
50-54 yrs
24
2%
6
0%
30
1%
10
55+ yrs
24
2%
3
0%
27
1%
3
Race /Ethnicity
White
290
19%
506
28%
796
24%
18
Black
879
59%
830
46%
1,709
52%
842
American Indian
21
1%
83
5%
104
3%
128
Asian/PI
13
1%
30
2%
43
1%
26
Other (3) (4)
41
3%
80
4%
121
4%
x
Unknown (4)
245
16%
285
16%
530
16%
x
Hispanic (5)
70
5%
82
5%
152
5%
106
TOTAL
1,489
100%
1,814
100%
3,303
100%
67
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities
U.S. Census 2000 data is used to calculate rates
(1) Residence missing for 142 cases of gonorrhea
(2) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(3) Includes persons reported with more than one race
(4) No comparable population data available to calculate rates
(5) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Table 2c. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Primary & Secondary (P&S) Syphilis by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender - Minnesota 2006
  Primary & Secondary (P&S) Syphilis
 
Males
Females
Total
Group
Cases
%
Cases
%
Cases
%

Rate

Residence (1)
Minneapolis
28
65%
1
25%
29
62%
7.6
St. Paul
4
9%
0
0%
4
9%
1.4
Suburban (2)
8
19%
2
50%
10
21%
0.5
Greater Minnesota
1
2%
1
25%
2
4%
0.1
Age
< 15 yrs
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
0.0
15-19 yrs
0
0%
2
50%
2
4%
0.5
20-24 yrs
5
12%
0
0%
5
11%
1.6
25-29 yrs
10
23%
0
0%
10
21%
3.1
30-34 yrs
6
14%
2
50%
8
17%
2.3
35-39 yrs
8
19%
0
0%
8
17%
1.9
40-44 yrs
8
19%
0
0%
8
17%
1.9
45-49 yrs
3
7%
0
0%
3
6%
0.8
50-54 yrs
2
5%
0
0%
2
4%
0.7
55+ yrs
1
2%
0
0%
1
2%
0.1
Race/Ethnicity
White
34
79%
0
0%
34
72%
0.8
Black
4
9%
3
75%
7
15%
3.4
American Indian
1
2%
0
0%
1
2%
1.2
Asian/PI
1
2%
0
0%
1
2%
0.6
Other (3) (4)
0
0%
1
25%
1
2%
x
Unknown (4)
3
7%
0
0%
3
6%
x
Hispanic (5)
2
5%
1
25%
5
11%
3.5
TOTAL
43
100%
4
100%
47
100%
1.0
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities
U.S. Census 2000 data is used to calculate rates
(1) Residence missing for 2 cases of P&S syphilis
(2) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(3) Includes persons reported with more than one race
(4) No comparable population data available to calculate rates
(5) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Table 3. Number of Cases and Rates (1) (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea by County of Residence -- Minnesota, 2006
 
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
 
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
County
Cases
Rate Cases
Rate
County
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Aitkin
12
78
2
-
Marshall
5
49
0
-
Anoka
615
206
82
28
Martin
28
128
3
-
Becker
23
77
5
17
Meeker
17
75
3
-
Beltrami
141
356
13
33
Mille Lacs
35
157
2
-
Benton
38
111
8
23
Morrison
26
82
1
-
Big Stone
8
137
0
-
Mower
87
225
21
54
Blue Earth
185
331
28
50
Murray
7
76
0
-
Brown
20
74
1
-
Nicollet
23
77
1
-
Carlton
50
158
5
16
Nobles
58
278
4
-
Carver
88
125
17
24
Norman
2
-
0
-
Cass
49
180
5
18
Olmsted
255
205
46
37
Chippewa
23
176
6
46
Otter Tail
33
58
1
-
Chisago
96
234
4
-
Pennington
14
103
2
-
Clay
52
102
7
14
Pine
30
113
1
-
Clearwater
7
83
2
-
Pipestone
1
-
0
-
Cook
8
155
0
-
Polk
34
108
5
16
Cottonwood
14
115
0
-
Pope
11
98
0
-
Crow Wing
94
171
6
11
Ramsey
2,315
453
726
142
Dakota
721
203
146
41
Red Lake
4
-
0
-
Dodge
15
85
0
-
Redwood
19
113
4
-
Douglas
21
64
4
-
Renville
18
105
3
-
Faribault
23
142
1
-
Rice
104
184
9
16
Fillmore
29
137
0
-
Rock
2
-
0
-
Freeborn
59
181
1
-
Roseau
12
73
1
-
Goodhue
77
174
4
-
St. Louis
483
241
95
47
Grant
4
-
1
-
Scott
185
207
30
34
Hennepin
4,576
410
1,688
151
Sherburne
72
112
6
9
Houston
26
132
0
-
Sibley
3
-
0
-
Hubbard
27
147
0
-
Stearns
381
286
50
38
Isanti
39
125
1
-
Steele
59
175
6
18
Itasca
69
157
8
18
Stevens
6
60
1
-
Jackson
6
53
0
-
Swift
15
125
2
-
Kanabec
16
107
0
-
Todd
17
70
0
-
Kandiyohi
79
192
7
17
Traverse
0
-
0
-
Kittson
0
-
0
-
Wabasha
24
111
0
-
Koochiching
18
125
0
-
Wadena
3
-
0
-
Lac qui Parle
4
-
0
-
Waseca
32
164
5
26
Lake
7
63
0
-
Washington
315
157
52
26
Lake of the Woods
1
-
0
-
Watonwan
16
135
1
-
Le Sueur
19
75
2
-
Wilkin
1
-
1
-
Lincoln
3
-
0
-
Winona
76
152
1
-
Lyon
55
216
12
47
Wright
117
130
7
8
McLeod
30
86
1
-
Yellow Medicine
11
99
2
-
Mahnomen
7
135
2
-
         
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities;
(1) Rates not calculated for counties with fewer than 5 cases
U.S. Census 2000 data is used to calculate rates

Data Archive

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Updated Monday, June 02, 2014 at 02:31PM