Annual Summary: 2009 Minnesota Sexually Transmitted Disease Statistics

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Annual Summary: 2009 Minnesota Sexually Transmitted Disease Statistics (PDF: 74KB/9 pages)


On this page:
Overall Summary
Sources of Data
Limitations of Data
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
Syphilis
Chancroid
Summary Points
Data Tables

Overall Summary:

The 2009 Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Statistics includes summary of surveillance data for Minnesota’s reportable STDs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid. In Minnesota, STDs are the most commonly reported communicable diseases and account for over 60% of all notifiable diseases reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). In 2009 the number of reported bacterial STDs declined to 16,702 cases reported. representing an overall decrease of 5.8% from the previous year. The change in incidence rates varied by disease, with chlamydia decreasing by 2%, primary/secondary syphilis decreasing by 39%, and gonorrhea decreasing by 24%.

This report provides a comprehensive review of STD trends and current morbidity in Minnesota; data are also available in a slide presentation (PPT: 927KB/63 slides).

Data Tables:

List of tables included in this report:
Table 1. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis (All Stages) and Chancroid— Minnesota, 2005-2009
Table 2a. Chlamydia: Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender— Minnesota, 2009
Table 2b. Gonorrhea: Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender— Minnesota, 2009
Table 2c. Primary/Secondary Syphilis:  Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender— Minnesota, 2009
Table 3. Number of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) by County—Minnesota, 2009

Sources of Data:

STD Case Reporting
Under state law (Minnesota Rule 4605.7040), both physicians and laboratories must report laboratory-confirmed infections of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid to the MDH within one working day. Other common sexually transmitted conditions such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are not reported to the MDH.

Partner Services Program
All early syphilis cases reported to the MDH are referred to the Partner Services Program to ensure treatment of patients and their sexual partners. Additional surveillance data is collected through this process including information on sexual behavior and drug use.

Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP)
As part of the national Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the MDH monitors antimicrobial susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A Minneapolis STD clinic submits isolates on a monthly basis to the MDH. Sociodemographic and behavioral data for each case are also submitted. As of 2008, the MDH ceased routine susceptibility testing for GISP isolates, but still collaborates with the CDC to perform susceptibility testing.

Minnesota Infertility Prevention Project (MIPP)
Minnesota participates in the national Infertility Prevention Project funded by the CDC. Through MIPP, the MDH funds clinics across the state – including STD, family planning, adolescent, and community clinics – to provide testing and treatment for chlamydia and gonorrhea to men and women ages 15-24. Participating clinics submit to MDH demographic and clinical data on every test performed. With information on positive as well as negative tests, prevalence (or positivity) rates for chlamydia and gonorrhea can be calculated and monitored.

Limitations of Data:

Several factors impact the completeness and accuracy of the MDH’s STD surveillance data, including compliance with and completeness of case reporting among healthcare providers and laboratories. Clinically diagnosed cases, presumptively treated cases, and asymptomatic cases with no STD-related illnesses may be under-reported through the STD surveillance system. Furthermore, STD cases reported by laboratories lacking subsequent provider reporting may be excluded from the STD surveillance database. The majority of laboratory reports originate from facilities that do not routinely collect demographic and clinical information required for STD surveillance. In 2002, the MDH implemented an active surveillance process whereby providers are reminded to submit demographic and clinical information missing from cases reported solely through laboratories. Additional factors affecting validity of the STD surveillance data include STD screening coverage, individual test-seeking behavior, and accuracy of diagnostic tests. Thus, changes in STD rates may be due to one or more of these factors or due to actual changes in the incidence of STDs in the population. 

Population counts used to calculate incidence rates by residence (i.e., state, counties, Minneapolis, and Saint Paul), by age, by gender, and by race/ethnicity were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. Incident rates (number of reported cases per 100,000 persons) were calculated using yearly case data and population counts from the decennial census. Population counts for 1991 to 1999 were estimated by interpolation between the 1990 and 2000 census data. Subsequent (2000-2009) rates were calculated using population counts from the 2000 Census, the most recent year for which counts by race, age, gender, and residence were available. Essentially, the denominator in rate calculations for 2000-2009 has remained stable while cases have increased. As a result, rates for these years – especially the most recent ones – may be inflated. Furthermore, the 2000 Census data on race include the number of persons by race alone, or in combination with one or more races. Thus, persons who identified themselves by more than one race are overrepresented in the denominators.

Chlamydia:

Chlamydia is the most commonly reported communicable disease in Minnesota. From an all-time low of 115 cases per 100,000 in 1996, the incidence of chlamydia has more than doubled to 288 per 100,000 in 2009. Over these years, increases were seen across all gender, age, race and geographical groups. The rates tripled among men (54 to 162 per 100,000) and more than doubled among females (175 to 410 per 100,000). Among 25-39 year-olds, the incidence rate more than tripled. Blacks and American Indians experienced rate increases of 45% and 40%, respectively, while rates doubled among Whites and Hispanics and almost tripled among Asian/Pacific Islanders. In addition to an increase of disease in the population, other factors may have contributed to the increases seen during these years including increased reporting by providers, use of improved STD diagnostic tools, improved screening practices by clinicians and the addition of an active surveillance component to the MDH’s STD surveillance system.

In 2009, the chlamydia rate decreased modestly by 2% overall and remained highest among women (410 per 100,000), Blacks (2,038 per 100,000), and 20-24 year-olds (1,652 per 100,000).  The rates decreased slightly by 3% among males and 1% among females. Although adolescents (15-19 year-olds) and young adults (20-24 year-olds) have the highest rates and comprise the majority of cases, rates increased the most among 40-44 year-olds (17%). Across geographic areas, the City of Minneapolis had the highest incidence rate (741 per 100,000), but experienced the greatest decrease in chlamydia rates between 2008 and 2009 (6%). Chlamydia cases showed a modest increase only in suburban areas in 2009 (1%). Communities of color showed larger decreases in chlamydia rates than whites (range, 5-15%), while Whites saw a smaller 3% decrease. However, racial disparities in chlamydia continue to persist in Minnesota with the incidence rate among Blacks being 16 times that among Whites. Other racial/ethnic groups are disproportionately affected by chlamydia; incidence rates among American Indians, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics were 4.0, 2.5, and 4.9 times higher than the rate among Whites, respectively.

Gonorrhea:

In 2009, Minnesota experienced the lowest rate of reported gonorrhea ever. From 1999 to 2009, the incidence of gonorrhea in Minnesota decreased from 58 to 47 per 100,000 persons. However, as with chlamydia, the incidence of infection was higher among some segments of the population compared to others. The rates decreased by 26% among males and 24% among females. The rates decreased among all racial/ethnic groups, with the largest drops among Blacks and Asians (22% and 48%, respectively). However, during this period Blacks continued to have gonorrhea incidence rates far higher than other race groups.

In 2009 the incidence rate of gonorrhea decreased by 24% from 62 to 47 per 100,000 persons. As with chlamydia, gonorrhea rates were highest among females (51 per 100,000), Blacks (546 per 100,000), and 20-24 year-olds (237 per 100,000). Adolescents and young adults continue to account for a disproportionate amount (60%) of all gonorrhea cases. The Cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul accounted for the highest rates of infection (188 and 141 cases per 100,000 persons, respectively). Compared to chlamydia, greater racial disparities in gonorrhea infections continue to persist in Minnesota with an incidence rate among Blacks being 36 times that among Whites. These racial disparities are also evident among American Indians and Hispanics, whose rates are 5.3 and 3.8 times those of Whites. 

The emergence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria Gonorrhea (QRNG) in recent years has become a particular concern. Due to the high prevalence of QRNG in Minnesota as well as nationwide, quinolones are no longer recommended for the treatment of gonococcal infections.

Syphilis:

Incidence rates of primary/secondary syphilis in Minnesota remained stable from 1998 until 2002 when an outbreak was observed among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the overall rate increased from 0.2 to 1.2 per 100,000 persons. Since 2002, primary/secondary syphilis rates have fluctuated but remained elevated. In addition, the number of early syphilis cases (primary, secondary, and early latent stages) increased from 83 in 2002 to 117 in 2009, with MSM accounting for 91% of all cases among males in 2009. Meanwhile, early syphilis among women showed a slight decrease from 12 cases in 2002 to 9 cases in 2009. Therefore, the disparity in early syphilis rates between males and females has remains large and reflects the greater burden within the MSM community.  

In 2009, the overall incidence rate of primary/secondary syphilis decreased from 2.4 to 1.4 cases per 100,000 persons. The number of cases among males decreased from 111 in 2008 to 71 in 2009 while among females, the number decreased from 5 to 0. Primary/secondary syphilis cases among MSM, who comprised 89% of male cases in 2009, decreased by 37%. Decreases in cases were observed across all geographic areas; however the City of Minneapolis remains to account for majority of cases (54%). The incidence of primary/secondary syphilis infection decreased in every age group, except among 35-39 year olds. Whites comprised the majority (75%) of cases in 2009, but African Americans still have a rate of primary/secondary syphilis that is almost 5 times higher than that among Whites.

The number of early syphilis cases also increased in 2009 (117 versus 163 in 2008). The number of cases among women increased slightly (from 5 to 9), while cases among men decreased from 157 to 106 (32%). Of all cases reported, 91% were among males and 91% of these were MSM. Most (76%) of the MSM cases were White, but a disproportionate number (13%) were Black. Over half were residents of Minneapolis. Among all early syphilis cases, the largest decrease in a single age group was among persons 20-24 years old (33 cases in 2008; 15 cases in 2009).  

Chancroid:

Chancroid remains extremely rare in Minnesota. The last case reported in Minnesota was in 1999.

Summary Points:

  • Over the past decade (1999-2009), Minnesota’s chlamydia rate showed an overall increase of 88% while the rate of gonorrhea fluctuated but increased slightly.
  • Minnesota has seen a resurgence in syphilis since 2002, with men who have sex with men being especially impacted.
  • Racial disparities in STDs continue to persist in Minnesota with communities of color having the highest rates.
  • Between 2008 and 2009, the chlamydia incidence rate decreased modestly by 1% while the gonorrhea rate decreased by 24%. Cases of primary/secondary syphilis also decreased among males (89% of whom were men who have sex with men); no female primary/secondary cases were reported in 2009.
  • In 2009, incidence rates of chlamydia decreased by 3% among males and 1% among females; gonorrhea decreased by 26% among males and 24% among females.
  • STD rates continue to be highest in the City of Minneapolis. However, the Twin Cities suburbs and Greater Minnesota account for a large percentage of STD cases.
  • Adolescents and young adults (ages 15-24) accounted for 69% of chlamydia and 60% of gonorrhea cases reported in 2009.
  • In 2009, primary/secondary syphilis cases decreased by 37% among men who have sex with men.

Data Tables

Table 1. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis (All Stages)
and Chancroid — Minnesota, 2005-2009

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Disease
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Chlamydia 12,355 251 12,975 264 13,480 274 14,414 293 14,186 288
Gonorrhea 3,505 71 3,316 67 3,479 71 3,054 62 2,302 47
All Stages of Syphilis 210 4.3 188 3.8 186 3.8 263 5.3 214 4.4
~ Primary/Secondary Syphilis 71 1.4 47 1.0 59 1.2 116 2.4 71 1.4
~ Early Latent Syphilis 48 1.0 58 1.2 55 1.1 47 1.0 46 0.9
~ Late Latent Syphilis 88 1.8 81 1.6 72 1.5 100 2.0 96 2.0
~ Other Syphilis (1) 1 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
~ Congenital Syphilis (2) 2 2.8 2 2.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.4
Chancroid 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities;
U.S. Census 2000 data is used to calculate rates.
(1) Includes unstaged neurosyphilis, latent syphilis of unknown duration, and late syphilis with clinical manifestations.
(2) Congenital syphilis rate per 100,000 live births.

Table 2a. Chlamydia: Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender — Minnesota, 2009
  Chlamydia
Males
Females
Total
Group
Cases
%
Cases
%
Cases
%
Rate
Residence (1)
Minneapolis 941 24% 1,893 19% 2,834 20% 741
St. Paul 557 14% 1,415 14% 1,972 14% 687
Suburban (2) 1,284 32% 3,305 32% 4,589 32% 233
Greater Minnesota 1,034 26% 3,176 31% 4,210 30% 185
Age
< 15 yrs 13 0% 133 1% 146 1% 14
15-19 yrs 850 21% 3,628 36% 4,478 32% 1,196
20-24 yrs 1,464 37% 3,862 38% 5,326 38% 1,652
25-29 yrs 825 21% 1,514 15% 2,339 16% 731
30-34 yrs 367 9% 602 6% 969 7% 274
35-39 yrs 220 6% 243 2% 463 3% 112
40-44 yrs 124 3% 103 1% 227 2% 55
45-49 yrs 76 2% 57 1% 133 1% 37
50-54 yrs 28 1% 32 0% 60 0% 20
55+ yrs 25 1% 20 0% 45 0% 5
Race/Ethnicity
White 1,385 35% 4,335 43% 5,720 40% 132
Black 1,480 37% 2,656 26% 4,136 29% 2,038
American Indian 54 1% 360 4% 414 3% 511
Asian/PI 124 3% 422 4% 546 4% 324
Other (3) (4) 124 3% 483 5% 607 4% x
Unknown (4) 825 21% 1,938 19% 2,763 19% x
Hispanic (5),(6) 275 7% 632 6% 907 6% 633
TOTAL 3,992 100% 10,194 100% 14,186 100% 288
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities;
U.S. Census 2000 data is used to calculate rates.
(1) Residence missing for 581 cases of chlamydia.
(2) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(3) Includes persons reported with more than one race.
(4) No comparable population data available to calculate rates.
(5) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
(6) Ethnicity missing for one case of chlamydia.

Table 2b. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Gonorrhea by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender — Minnesota, 2009
  Gonorrhea
Males
Females
Total (1)
Group
Cases
%
Cases
%
Cases
%

Rate

Residence (2)
Minneapolis 392 38% 329 26% 721 31% 188
St. Paul 176 17% 228 18% 404 18% 141
Suburban (3) 288 28% 350 28% 639 28% 32
Greater Minnesota 140 14% 305 24% 445 19% 20
Age
< 15 yrs 1 0% 19 1% 20 1% 2
15-19 yrs 183 18% 427 34% 610 26% 163
20-24 yrs 313 30% 450 35% 764 33% 237
25-29 yrs 214 21% 213 17% 427 19% 134
30-34 yrs 120 12% 97 8% 217 9% 61
35-39 yrs 83 8% 28 2% 111 5% 27
40-44 yrs 38 4% 20 2% 58 3% 14
45-49 yrs 56 5% 9 1% 65 3% 18
50-54 yrs 17 2% 5 0% 22 1% 7
55+ yrs 7 1% 1 0% 8 0% 1
Race /Ethnicity
White 296 29% 377 30% 673 29% 16
Black 537 52% 570 45% 1,108 48% 546
American Indian 8 1% 57 4% 65 3% 80
Asian/PI 13 1% 13 1% 26 1% 15
Other (4)(5) 35 3% 65 5% 100 4% x
Unknown (5) 143 14% 187 15% 330 14% x
Hispanic (6) 42 4% 41 3% 83 4% 58
TOTAL 1,032 100% 1,269 100% 2,302 100% 47

NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities;
U.S. Census 2000 data is used to calculate rates.
(1) Total includes 1 case of gonorrhea diagnosed in transgendered person.
(2) Residence missing for 93 cases of gonorrhea.
(3) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(4) Includes persons reported with more than one race.
(5) No comparable population data available to calculate rates.
(6) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


Table 2c. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Primary/Secondary Syphilis by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender -- Minnesota, 2009
  Primary & Secondary (P&S) Syphilis
  Males Females Total
Group
Cases
%
Cases
%
Cases
%

Rate

Residence
Minneapolis 38 54% 0 0% 38 54% 9.9
St. Paul 10 14% 0 0% 10 14% 3.5
Suburban (1) 18 25% 0 0% 18 25% 0.9
Greater Minnesota 5 7% 0 0% 5 7% 0.2
Age
< 15 yrs 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0.0
15-19 yrs 2 3% 0 0% 2 3% 0.5
20-24 yrs 12 17% 0 0% 12 17% 3.7
25-29 yrs 11 15% 0 0% 11 15% 3.4
30-34 yrs 8 11% 0 0% 8 11% 2.3
35-39 yrs 12 17% 0 0% 12 17% 2.9
40-44 yrs 12 17% 0 0% 12 17% 2.9
45-49 yrs 6 8% 0 0% 6 8% 1.6
50-54 yrs 4 6% 0 0% 4 6% 1.3
55+ yrs 8 11% 0 0% 8 11% 0.8
Race/Ethnicity
White 53 75% 0 0% 53 75% 1.2
Black 11 15% 0 0% 11 15% 5.4
American Indian 1 1% 0 0% 1 1% 1.2
Asian/PI 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0.0
Other (2)(3) 6 8% 0 0% 6 8% x
Unknown 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% x
Hispanic (4) 6 8% 0 0% 6 8% 4.2
TOTAL 71 100% 0 0% 71 100% 1.4
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities;
U.S. Census 2000 data is used to calculate rates.
(1) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(2) Includes persons reported with more than one race.
(3) No comparable population data available to calculate rates.
(4) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Table 3. Number of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Cases and Rates (1) (per 100,000 persons) by County of Residence -- Minnesota, 2009
 
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
 
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
County
Cases
Rate Cases
Rate
County
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Aitkin 19 124 0 - Marshall 6 59 1 -
Anoka 730 245 79 27 Martin 14 64 3 -
Becker 43 143 4 - Meeker 22 97 1 -
Beltrami 144 363 28 71 Mille Lacs 50 224 2 -
Benton 44 129 7 20 Morrison 28 88 3 -
Big Stone 6 103 0 - Mower 105 272 17 44
Blue Earth 238 425 22 39 Murray 7 76 0 -
Brown 39 145 2 - Nicollet 36 121 5 17
Carlton 60 189 2 - Nobles 62 298 2 -
Carver 105 150 8 11 Norman 9 121 0 -
Cass 52 192 5 18 Olmsted 389 313 88 71
Chippewa 17 130 5 38 Otter Tail 52 91 3 -
Chisago 71 173 5 12 Pennington 33 243 0 -
Clay 134 262 13 25 Pine 41 155 1 -
Clearwater 16 190 1 - Pipestone 4 - 0 -
Cook 2 - 0 - Polk 38 121 2 -
Cottonwood 16 132 2 - Pope 9 80 1 -
Crow Wing 111 201 6 11 Ramsey 2393 468 472 92
Dakota 883 248 91 26 Red Lake 6 140 0 -
Dodge 40 226 7 39 Redwood 19 113 2 -
Douglas 27 82 3 - Renville 28 163 1 -
Faribault 21 130 0 - Rice 119 210 3 -
Fillmore 24 114 3 - Rock 8 82 0 -
Freeborn 76 233 7 21 Roseau 23 141 4 -
Goodhue 70 159 4 - St. Louis 475 237 47 23
Grant 4 - 0 - Scott 183 204 16 18
Hennepin 4737 424 1050 94 Sherburne 97 151 9 14
Houston 23 117 0 - Sibley 9 59 1 -
Hubbard 21 114 2 - Stearns 324 243 51 38
Isanti 30 96 1 - Steele 62 184 2 -
Itasca 54 123 11 25 Stevens 4 - 0 -
Jackson 11 98 0 - Swift 10 84 2 -
Kanabec 26 173 3 - Todd 14 57 0 -
Kandiyohi 114 277 6 15 Traverse 1 - 0 -
Kittson 2 - 0 - Wabasha 48 222 2 -
Koochiching 11 77 0 - Wadena 17 124 1 -
Lac qui Parle 6 74 2 - Waseca 34 174 1 -
Lake 13 118 1 - Washington 364 181 48 24
Lake of the Woods 3 - 1 - Watonwan 19 160 1 -
Le Sueur 34 134 2 - Wilkin 4 - 0 -
Lincoln 1 - 0 - Winona 82 164 7 14
Lyon 48 189 9 35 Wright 169 188 10 11
McLeod 35 100 2 - Yellow Medicine 10 90 4 -
Mahnomen 17 328 2 -        
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities;
County data missing for 581 chlamydia cases and 93 gonorrhea cases.
(1) Rates not calculated for counties with fewer than 5 cases.
U.S. Census 2000 data is used to calculate rates.

Data Archive

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Updated Monday, April 07, 2014 at 02:55PM