Annual Summary: 2012 Minnesota Sexually Transmitted Disease Statistics

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On this page:
Overall Summary
Sources of Data
Limitations of Data
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
Syphilis
Chancroid
Summary Points
Data Tables

Overall Summary:

The 2012 Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Statistics includes summary of surveillance data for Minnesota’s reportable STDs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid. In Minnesota, STDs are the most commonly reported communicable diseases and account for nearly 70% of all notifiable diseases reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). In 2012 the number of reported bacterial STDs increased to 21,465 cases, representing an overall increase of 10% from the previous year. The change in incidence rates varied by disease, with chlamydia increasing by 7%, gonorrhea increasing by 35%, and primary/secondary syphilis decreasing by 15%.

This report provides a comprehensive review of STD trends and current morbidity in Minnesota; data are also available in a slide presentation (PDF: 1.4MKB/64 slides). If you are interested in using one or more of these slides in a presentation, please contact Dawn Ginzl via e-mail or 651-201-4041.

Data Tables:

List of tables included in this report:
Table 1. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis (All Stages) and Chancroid— Minnesota, 2008-2012
Table 2a. Chlamydia: Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender— Minnesota, 2012
Table 2b. Gonorrhea: Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender— Minnesota, 2012
Table 2c. Primary/Secondary Syphilis:  Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender— Minnesota, 2012
Table 3. Number of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) by County—Minnesota, 2012

Sources of Data:

STD Case Reporting
Under state law (Minnesota Rule 4605.7040), both physicians and laboratories must report laboratory-confirmed infections of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid to the MDH within one working day. Other common sexually transmitted conditions such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are not reported to the MDH. 

MDH Partner Services Program
All early syphilis cases, and any untreated chlamydia or gonorrhea cases reported to the MDH are referred to the Partner Services Program to ensure treatment of patients and their sexual partners. Additional surveillance data is collected through this process including information on sexual behavior and drug use.

Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP)
As part of the national Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the MDH monitors antimicrobial susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A Minneapolis STD clinic submits isolates on a monthly basis to the MDH. Sociodemographic and behavioral data for each case are also submitted. As of 2008, the MDH ceased routine susceptibility testing for GISP isolates, but still collaborates with the CDC to perform susceptibility testing.

Minnesota Infertility Prevention Project (MIPP)
Minnesota participates in the national Infertility Prevention Project funded by the CDC. Through MIPP, the MDH funds clinics across the state – including STD, family planning, adolescent, and community clinics – to provide testing and treatment for chlamydia and gonorrhea to men and women ages 15-24. Participating clinics submit to MDH demographic and clinical data on every test performed. With information on positive as well as negative tests, prevalence (or positivity) rates for chlamydia and gonorrhea can be calculated and monitored.

Limitations of Data:

Several factors impact the completeness and accuracy of the MDH’s STD surveillance data, including compliance with and completeness of case reporting among healthcare providers and laboratories. Clinically diagnosed cases, presumptively treated cases, and asymptomatic cases with no STD-related illnesses may be under-reported through the STD surveillance system. Furthermore, STD cases reported by laboratories lacking subsequent provider reporting were excluded from the STD surveillance database prior to 2012. The majority of laboratory reports originate from facilities that do not routinely collect demographic and clinical information required for STD surveillance. In 2002, the MDH implemented an active surveillance process whereby providers are reminded to submit demographic and clinical information missing from cases reported solely through laboratories. Additional factors affecting validity of the STD surveillance data include STD screening coverage, individual test-seeking behavior, and accuracy of diagnostic tests. Thus, changes in STD rates may be due to one or more of these factors or due to actual changes in the incidence of STDs in the population. 

Population counts used to calculate incidence rates by residence (i.e., state, counties, Minneapolis, and Saint Paul), by age, by gender, and by race/ethnicity were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. Incident rates (number of reported cases per 100,000 persons) were calculated using yearly case data and population counts from the decennial census. Population counts for 1991 to 1999 were estimated by interpolation between the 1990 and 2000 census data. Rates for 2012 were calculated using population counts from the 2010 Census, the most recent year for which counts by race, age, gender, and residence were available at the time of calculation and preparation. This 2012 data release includes rates calculated using population estimates for the calendar years between the 2000 and 2010 U.S. Censuses.

Chlamydia:

Chlamydia is the most commonly reported communicable disease in Minnesota. From an all-time low of 115 cases per 100,000 in 1996, the incidence of chlamydia has almost tripled to 340 per 100,000 in 2012. Over these years, increases were seen across all gender, age and geographical groups. The rates have almost quadrupled among men (54 to 206 per 100,000) and more than doubled among females (175 to 470 per 100,000). Among 30-39 year-olds, the incidence rate is nearly five times higher in 2012 compared to 1996. Rates doubled among American Indians, Blacks, and Hispanics and almost tripled among Whites and Asian/Pacific Islanders. In addition to an increase of disease in the population, other factors may have contributed to the increases seen during these years including increased reporting by providers, use of improved STD diagnostic tools, improved screening practices by clinicians and the addition of an active surveillance component to the MDH’s STD surveillance system.

In 2012, the chlamydia rate increased by 7% overall and remained highest among women (470 per 100,000), Blacks (1,619 per 100,000), and 20-24 year-olds (2,015 per 100,000). The rates increased by 7% among males and 6% among females. Adolescents (15-19 year-olds) and young adults (20-24 year-olds) have the highest rates and comprise the majority of cases, rates among males increased the most among those over 50+ years (29%), and rates among females increased the most among those 10-14 years (24%). Across geographic areas, the City of Minneapolis had the highest incidence rate (927 per 100,000). However, Greater Minnesota experienced the greatest increase in chlamydia rates between 2011 and 2012 (16%), followed by Minneapolis (9%), St. Paul (5%), and the Suburban area (seven-county metro excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) experienced a decrease of 8%.  Racial disparities in chlamydia continue to persist in Minnesota with the incidence rate among Blacks being 11 times that among Whites. Other racial/ethnic groups are disproportionately affected by chlamydia; incidence rates among American Indians, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics were 4.9, 1.9, and 2.5 times higher than the rate among Whites, respectively.

Gonorrhea:

In 2012, Minnesota experienced another increase (35%) in the rate of reported gonorrhea, after rates increased in 2011 for the first time since 2007.  From 2002 to 2012, the incidence of gonorrhea in Minnesota decreased from 61 to 58 per 100,000 persons (5%). However, as with chlamydia, the incidence of infection was higher among some segments of the population compared to others. Rates during the past decade have decreased by 4% among males and 6% among females. The rates also decreased among all racial/ethnic groups, with the largest drops among Hispanics and Blacks (56% and 35%, respectively). However, during this period Blacks continued to have gonorrhea incidence rates far higher than other race groups.

In 2012 the incidence rate of gonorrhea increased by 35% from 43 to 58 per 100,000 persons. As with chlamydia, gonorrhea rates were highest among females (63 per 100,000), Blacks (488 per 100,000), and 20-24 year-olds (290 per 100,000). Adolescents and young adults continue to account for a disproportionate amount (65%) of all gonorrhea cases. The Cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul accounted for the highest rates of infection (280 and 183 cases per 100,000 persons, respectively). The greatest increase from 2011 to 2012 (39%) was seen in St. Paul, whereas, gonorrhea rates in the Suburban area (seven-county metro excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) increased 36%, Minneapolis increased by 32%, and Greater Minnesota increased by 27%  during this same time. Compared to chlamydia, greater racial disparities in gonorrhea infections continue to persist in Minnesota with an incidence rate among Blacks being 26 times that among Whites. These racial disparities are also evident among American Indians and Hispanics, whose rates are 8.0 and 1.8 times those of Whites.

The emergence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria Gonorrhea (QRNG) in recent years has become a particular concern. Due to the high prevalence of QRNG in Minnesota as well as nationwide, quinolones are no longer recommended for the treatment of gonococcal infections.  Additionally, the CDC changed the treatment guidelines for gonococcal infections in August of 2012.  CDC no longer recommends cefixime at any dose as a first-line regimen for treatment of gonococcal infections.  If cefixime is used as an alternative agent, then the patient should return in one week for a test-of-cure at the site of infection.

Syphilis:

Incidence rates of primary/secondary syphilis in Minnesota remained stable from 1998 until 2002 when an outbreak was observed among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the overall rate increased from 0.2 to 1.2 per 100,000 persons. Since 2002, primary/secondary syphilis rates have fluctuated but remained elevated. In addition, the number of early syphilis cases (primary, secondary, and early latent stages) increased from 83 in 2002 to 214 in 2012, with MSM accounting for 81% of all cases among males in 2012. The disparity in early syphilis rates between males and females has remained large and reflects the greater burden within the MSM community.

In 2012, the overall incidence rate of primary/secondary syphilis decreased from 2.6 to 2.2 cases per 100,000 persons. The number of cases among males decreased from 134 in 2011 to 111 in 2012 while among females, the number increased from 5 to 7. Decreases in cases were observed across all geographic areas except St. Paul, which increased from 14 in 2011 to 19 in 2012; however the City of Minneapolis remains to account for the majority of cases (48%). The incidence of primary/secondary syphilis infection decreased in every age group, except among persons 40-44 years of age and among persons 15-19 years of age.  Whites comprised the majority (48%) of cases in 2012, while American Indians saw an increase of primary/secondary syphilis of 293% from 2011 to 2012. Also, Blacks comprised compromised 35% of all primary/secondary syphilis cases in 2012 and have a rate of primary/secondary syphilis that is almost 12 times higher than that among Whites.

The number of early syphilis cases decreased in 2012 (214 versus 260 in 2011). The number of cases among women increased from 13 cases in 2011 to 18 cases in 2012.  Early syphilis cases among men decreased from 247 to 196 (21%). Of all early syphilis cases reported in 2012, 92% were among males and 81%of these were MSM.  Of the MSM early syphilis cases 59% were co-infected with HIV.

Chancroid:

Chancroid remains extremely rare in Minnesota. The last case reported in Minnesota was in 1999.

Summary Points:

  • Over the past decade (2002-2012), Minnesota’s chlamydia rate showed an overall increase of 68 % while the rate of gonorrhea has fluctuated but has overall shown a decrease of 5%.  Rates of primary/secondary syphilis have increased 83%.
  • Minnesota has seen a resurgence in syphilis since 2002, with men who have sex with men being especially impacted. The co-infection rate with HIV continues to rise.
  • Racial disparities in STDs continue to persist in Minnesota with communities of color having the highest rates.
  • Between 2011 and 2012, the chlamydia incidence rate increased by 7%, while the gonorrhea rate increased by 35%. Cases of primary/secondary syphilis decreased by 15%.  The greatest growth was seen among late latent syphilis cases, which increased by 13%.
  • In 2012, incidence rates of chlamydia increased by 7% among males and 6% among females; gonorrhea increased by 39% among males and 31% among females.
  • STD rates continued to be highest in the City of Minneapolis. However, the Twin Cities suburbs and Greater Minnesota accounted for a large percentage of STD cases.
  • Adolescents and young adults (ages 15-24) accounted for 69% of chlamydia and 65% of gonorrhea cases reported in 2012.
  • In 2012, men who have sex with men account for 81% of all male early syphilis cases, and rates of primary/secondary syphilis increased 293% among American Indians.        

Data Tables

Table 1. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis (All Stages)
and Chancroid — Minnesota, 2008-2012

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Disease Cases Rate Cases Rate Cases Rate Cases Rate Cases Rate
Chlamydia 14,414 275 14,369 272 15,509 292 16,898 319 18,048 340
Gonorrhea 3,054 58 2,328 44 2,149 41 2,283 43 3,082 58
All Stages of Syphilis 263 5.0 215 4.1 351 6.6 366 6.9 335 6.3
~ Primary/Secondary Syphilis 116 2.2 71 1.3 150 2.8 139 2.6 118 2.2
~ Early Latent Syphilis 47 0.9 46 0.9 74 1.4 121 2.3 96 1.8
~ Late Latent Syphilis 100 1.9 97 1.8 126 2.4 106 2.0 120 2.3
~ Other Syphilis (1) 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
~ Congenital Syphilis (2) 0 0.0 1 1.4 1 1.5 0 0.0 1 1.5
Chancroid 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities;
U.S. Census Intercensal and U.S. 2010 data is used to calculate rates.
(1) Includes unstaged neurosyphilis, latent syphilis of unknown duration, and late syphilis with clinical manifestations.
(2) Congenital syphilis rate per 100,000 live births.

Table 2a. Chlamydia: Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender — Minnesota, 2012
  Chlamydia
Males Females Total (6)(7)
Group Case % Case % Case % Rate
Residence (1)
Minneapolis 1,307 24% 2,237 18% 3,546 20% 927
St. Paul 678 12% 1,586 13% 2,265 13% 795
Suburban (2) 1,585 29% 3,859 31% 5,444 30% 250
Greater Minnesota 1,473 27% 4,146 33% 5,619 31% 229
Age
< 15 yrs 23 0% 175 1% 198 1% 19
15-19 yrs 1,033 19% 4,311 34% 5,344 30% 1,453
20-24 yrs 2,086 38% 5,059 40% 7,147 40% 2,010
25-29 yrs 1,104 20% 1,765 14% 2,869 16% 770
30-34 yrs 545 10% 706 6% 1,251 7% 365
35-39 yrs 282 5% 295 2% 578 3% 176
40-44 yrs 158 3% 145 1% 303 2% 86
45-49 yrs 104 2% 54 0% 158 1% 39
50-54 yrs 58 1% 25 0% 83 0% 21
55+ yrs 36 1% 27 0% 63 0% 5
Race/Ethnicity
White 1,950 36% 5,037 40% 6,988 39% 154
Black 1,667 31% 2,881 23% 4,548 25% 1,657
American Indian 96 2% 405 3% 501 3% 822
Asian/PI 163 3% 464 4% 628 3% 290
Other (3) (4) 153 3% 379 3% 532 3% x
Unknown (4) 1,400 26% 3,451 27% 4,851 27% x
Hispanic (5) 278 5% 663 5% 942 5% 376
TOTAL 5,429   12,562   18,048   340
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities;
U.S. Census 2010 data is used to calculate rates.
(1) Residence missing for 1,176 cases of chlamydia.
(2) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(3) Includes persons reported with more than one race.
(4) No comparable population data available to calculate rates.
(5) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
(6) Total includes 3 cases of chlamydia diagnosed in transgendered persons.
(7) Includes 54 cases with missing gender.

Table 2b. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Gonorrhea by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender — Minnesota, 2012
  Gonorrhea
Males Females Total (1)(7)
Group Case % Case % Case % Rate
Residence (2)
Minneapolis 584 42% 485 29% 1,070 35% 280
St. Paul 223 16% 299 18% 523 17% 183
Suburban (3) 381 27% 509 30% 890 29% 41
Greater Minnesota 145 10% 302 18% 447 15% 18
Age
< 15 yrs 4 0% 32 2% 36 1% 3
15-19 yrs 202 14% 579 35% 781 25% 212
20-24 yrs 416 30% 613 37% 1,030 33% 290
25-29 yrs 289 21% 241 14% 530 17% 142
30-34 yrs 161 12% 111 7% 272 9% 79
35-39 yrs 107 8% 57 3% 164 5% 50
40-44 yrs 81 6% 18 1% 100 3% 28
45-49 yrs 68 5% 15 1% 83 3% 20
50-54 yrs 33 2% 9 1% 42 1% 10
55+ yrs 34 2% 1 0% 35 1% 3
Race /Ethnicity
White 455 33% 426 25% 882 29% 19
Black 612 44% 758 45% 1,370 44% 499
American Indian 23 2% 79 5% 102 3% 167
Asian/PI 29 2% 30 2% 59 2% 27
Other (4)(5) 6 0% 7 0% 13 0% x
Unknown (5) 270 19% 386 23% 656 21% x
Hispanic (6) 57 4% 31 2% 88 3% 35
TOTAL 1,395   1,676   3,082   58
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities;
U.S. Census 2010 data is used to calculate rates.
(1) Total includes 2 cases of gonorrhea diagnosed in transgendered persons.
(2) Residence missing for 155 cases of gonorrhea.
(3) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(4) Includes persons reported with more than one race.
(5) No comparable population data available to calculate rates.
(6) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
(7) Includes 9 cases with missing gender.

Table 2c. Number of Cases and Rates (per 100,000 persons) of Primary/Secondary Syphilis by Residence, Age, Race/Ethnicity and Gender -- Minnesota, 2012
  Primary & Secondary (P&S) Syphilis
  Males Females Total
Group Case % Case % Case % Rate
Residence
Minneapolis 55 50% 2 0% 57 48% 14.9
St. Paul 16 14% 3 0% 19 16% 6.7
Suburban (1) 36 32% 1 0% 37 31% 1.7
Greater Minnesota 4 4% 1 0% 5 4% 0.2
Age
< 15 yrs 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0.0
15-19 yrs 4 4% 0 0% 4 3% 1.1
20-24 yrs 13 12% 3 0% 16 14% 4.5
25-29 yrs 18 16% 1 0% 19 16% 5.1
30-34 yrs 18 16% 1 0% 19 16% 5.5
35-39 yrs 14 13% 1 0% 15 13% 4.6
40-44 yrs 15 14% 0 0% 15 13% 4.3
45-49 yrs 17 15% 0 0% 17 14% 4.2
50-54 yrs 7 6% 0 0% 7 6% 1.7
55+ yrs 5 5% 1 0% 6 5% 0.5
Race/Ethnicity
White 55 50% 2 0% 57 48% 1.3
Black 39 35% 2 0% 41 35% 14.9
American Indian 1 1% 3 0% 4 3% 6.6
Asian/PI 1 1% 0 0% 1 1% 0.5
Other (2)(3) 7 6% 0 0% 7 6% x
Unknown 8 7% 0 0% 8 7% x
Hispanic (4) 10 9% 0 0% 10 8% 4.0
TOTAL 111   7   118   2.2
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities;
U.S. Census 2010 data is used to calculate rates.
(1) Suburban is defined as the seven-county metropolitan area (Anoka, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, Ramsey, Scott and Washington Counties, excluding the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul).
(2) Includes persons reported with more than one race.
(3) No comparable population data available to calculate rates.
(4) Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Table 3. Number of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Cases and Rates (1) (per 100,000 persons) by County of Residence -- Minnesota, 2012
 
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
 
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
County
Cases
Rate Cases
Rate
County
Cases
Rate
Cases
Rate
Aitkin 20 123 2 - Marshall 10 106 0 -
Anoka 968 293 139 42 Martin 25 120 1 -
Becker 63 194 1 - Meeker 27 116 1 -
Beltrami 209 470 31 70 Mille Lacs 70 268 3 -
Benton 98 255 10 26 Morrison 53 160 3 -
Big Stone 4 - 0 - Mower 90 230 13 33
Blue Earth 262 409 11 17 Murray 7 80 0 -
Brown 35 135 2 - Nicollet 75 229 1 -
Carlton 100 283 3 - Nobles 46 215 4 -
Carver 111 122 16 18 Norman 5 73 0 -
Cass 74 259 15 53 Olmsted 460 319 28 19
Chippewa 14 113 1 - Otter Tail 73 127 3 -
Chisago 101 187 10 19 Pennington 24 172 1 -
Clay 190 322 14 24 Pine 58 195 1 -
Clearwater 16 184 2 - Pipestone 8 83 0 -
Cook 6 116 0 - Polk 71 225 3 -
Cottonwood 20 171 0 - Pope 11 100 2 -
Crow Wing 123 197 4 - Ramsey 2696 530 582 114
Dakota 1003 252 128 32 Red Lake 12 293 2 -
Dodge 59 294 2 - Redwood 16 100 1 -
Douglas 55 153 0 - Renville 24 153 5 32
Faribault 20 137 1 - Rice 120 187 4 -
Fillmore 30 144 1 - Rock 12 124 0 -
Freeborn 101 323 3 - Roseau 17 109 1 -
Goodhue 112 243 8 17 St. Louis 750 375 117 58
Grant 6 100 0 - Scott 246 189 25 19
Hennepin 5829 506 1545 134 Sherburne 181 205 8 9
Houston 28 147 1 - Sibley 20 131 2 -
Hubbard 15 73 2 - Stearns 402 267 45 30
Isanti 67 177 4 - Steele 84 230 3 -
Itasca 128 284 11 24 Stevens 7 72 0 -
Jackson 18 175 4 - Swift 8 82 0 -
Kanabec 14 86 0 - Todd 20 80 0 -
Kandiyohi 117 277 8 19 Traverse 5 141 0 -
Kittson 1 - 0 - Wabasha 57 263 2 -
Koochiching 20 150 0 - Wadena 8 58 0 -
Lac qui Parle 3 - 5 69 Waseca 39 204 1 -
Lake 26 239 2 - Washington 393 165 44 18
Lake of the Woods 6 148 0 - Watonwan 33 294 1 -
Le Sueur 41 148 3 - Wilkin 12 182 1 -
Lincoln 6 102 0 - Winona 136 264 9 17
Lyon 50 193 1 - Wright 197 158 14 11
McLeod 62 169 1 - Yellow Medicine 15 144 5 48
Mahnomen 19 351 0 -        
NOTE: Data exclude cases diagnosed in federal or private correctional facilities.
County data missing for 1,176 chlamydia cases and 155 gonorrhea cases.
(1) Rates not calculated for counties with fewer than 5 cases.
U.S. Census 2010 data is used to calculate rates.


Data Archive

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Updated Monday, April 07, 2014 at 02:55PM