Campylobacter continues to be the most commonly reported bacterial enteric pathogen in Minnesota (Figure 1). There were 896 cases of culture-confirmed Campylobacter infection reported in 2004 (18.2 per 100,000 population). This is similar to the 937 cases reported in 2003 and to the median annual number of cases reported from 1999 to 2003 (median, 941 cases; range, 786 to 1,079). Fifty-five percent of cases occurred in people who resided outside the Twin Cities metropolitan area. Of the 805 Campylobacter isolates confirmed and identified to species by MDH, 92% were C. jejuni and 7% were C. coli.
The median age of case-patients was 33 years (range, 3 months to 93 years). Forty-four percent of cases were between 20 and 49 years of age, and 16% were 5 years of age or younger. Fifty-eight percent of cases were male. Fifteen percent of case-patients were hospitalized; the median length of hospitalization was 2 days. Fifty-one percent of infections occurred during June through September. Of the 804 (90%) case-patients for whom data were available, 145 (18%) reported travel outside of the United States during the week prior to illness onset. The most common travel destinations were Mexico (n=40), Central or South America (n=41), western Europe (n=32), and Asia (n=25). There were no outbreaks of campylobacteriosis identified in 2004.
A primary feature of public health importance among Campylobacter cases was the continued presence of Campylobacter isolates resistant to fluoroquinolone antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin), which are commonly used to treat campylobacteriosis. In 2004, the overall proportion of quinolone-resistant Campylobacter isolates was 15%. However, 67% of C. jejuni isolates from patients with a history of foreign travel (regardless of destination) during the week before illness onset were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Domestically acquired quinolone-resistant C. jejuni infections also have increased in recent years. This increase likely is due largely to the use of fluoroquinolones in poultry (the primary source of Campylobacter for humans) in the United States, which began late in 1995. In 2004, 5% of C. jejuni isolates from patients who acquired the infection domestically were resistant to fluoroquinolones.
Note: For up to date information on Campylobacter see Campylobacteriosis (Campylobacter)
Go to full issue: DCN, July/August 2005: Volume 33, Number 4