HIV Infection and AIDS, 2010
AIDS surveillance has been conducted in Minnesota since 1982. In 1985, Minnesota became the first state to make HIV infection a name-based reportable condition; all states now require name-based HIV infection reporting.
The incidence of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota is moderately low. In 2009, state-specific AIDS rates ranged from 1.1 per 100,000 population in Vermont to 24.6 per 100,000 in New York. Minnesota had the 15th lowest AIDS rate (4.2 cases per 100,000). Similar comparisons for HIV (non-AIDS) incidence rates are not possible because some states only began named HIV (non-AIDS) reporting recently.
As of December 31, 2010, a cumulative total of 9,493 cases of HIV infection (5,824 AIDS cases and 3,669 HIV [non-AIDS] cases) had been reported among Minnesota residents. Of the 9,493 HIV/AIDS cases, 3,228 (34%) are known to have died.
The annual number of AIDS cases reported in Minnesota increased steadily from the beginning of the epidemic through the early 1990s, reaching a peak of 370 cases in 1992. Beginning in 1996, the annual number of new AIDS diagnoses and deaths among AIDS cases declined sharply, primarily due to better antiretroviral therapies. In 2010, 173 new AIDS cases (Figure 3) and 70 deaths among persons living with HIV infection were reported.
The annual number of newly diagnosed HIV (non-AIDS) cases reported has increased from 198 in 2004 to 248 in 2010 (a 25% increase). This trend, coupled with improved survival, has led to an increasing number of persons in Minnesota living with HIV or AIDS. By the end of 2010, an estimated 6,814 persons with HIV/AIDS were assumed to be living in Minnesota.
Historically, and in 2010, over 80% (282/331) of new HIV infections (both HIV [non-AIDS] and AIDS at first diagnosis) reported in Minnesota occurred in the metropolitan area. However, HIV or AIDS cases have been diagnosed in residents of more than 90% of counties statewide. HIV infection is most common in areas with higher population densities and greater poverty.
The majority of new HIV infections in Minnesota occur among males. Trends in the annual number of new HIV infections diagnosed among males differ by race/ethnicity. New infections occurred primarily among white males in the 1980s and early 1990s. Whites still comprise the largest proportion of new HIV infections among males. New infections among white males decreased between 1991 and 2000, from 297 to 101. However since then the trend has reversed, and in 2010 there were 142 new infections among white males (41% increase). The decline among U.S.-born black males has been more gradual, falling from a peak of 79 new infections in 1992 to a low of 33 new infections in 2003. However, since 2003 the number of new infections among U.S.-born black males has increased, with 58 new infections diagnosed in 2010. The number of HIV infections diagnosed among Hispanic males decreased slightly in 2007 from the previous year (33 versus 37) and that trend continued in 2010, with 29 new infections reported among Hispanic males. The number of new infections among African-born males decreased in 2010 to 13 from 19 in 2009.
Females account for an increasing percentage of new HIV infections, from 11% of new infections in 1990 to 21% in 2010. Trends in HIV infections diagnosed annually among females also differ by race/ethnicity. Early in the epidemic, whites accounted for the majority of newly diagnosed infections in women. Since 1991, the number of new infections among women of color has exceeded that of white women. The annual number of new HIV infections diagnosed among U.S.-born black females had remained stable at 22 or fewer cases during 2001 to 2004, but increased to 28 new cases in both 2005 and 2006. In 2010, there were 16 new infections diagnosed among U.S.-born black females. In contrast, the number of new infections among African-born females increased greatly from 4 cases in 1996 to 39 in 2002. However, since 2002 the number of new HIV infections in African-born females has decreased steadily, with 18 new cases diagnosed in 2006. Since 2007, the number of new cases among African-born females has stayed stable at about 22 new infections per year (20 in 2010). The annual number of new infections diagnosed among Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian females is small, with 10 or fewer cases annually in each group.
Despite relatively small numbers of cases, persons of color are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in Minnesota. In 2010, non-white men comprised approximately 12% of the male population in Minnesota and 46% of new HIV infections among men. Similarly, persons of color comprised approximately 11% of the female population and 68% of new HIV infections among women. It bears noting that race is not considered a biological cause of disparities in the occurrence of HIV, but instead race can be used as a proxy for other risk factors, including lower socioeconomic status and education.
A population of concern for HIV infection is adolescents and young adults (15 to 24 years of age). The number of new HIV infections among males in this age group has remained higher than new infections among females since 1999. Since 2001, Minnesota has seen a steady increase in new cases among males in this age group, with 67 cases reported in 2010, the second highest seen since 1987. The number of new HIV infections among females increased slightly between 2007 and 2009, (from 13 cases to 18 cases), but decreased to 11 cases in 2010. From 2008 to 2010, the majority (57%) of new infections among male adolescents and young adults were among youth of color (108/189), with young African American males accounting for 65% of the cases among young males of color. During the same time period, young women of color accounted for 65% of the cases diagnosed, with young African American women accounting for 42% of cases among young women of color. Between 2008 and 2010, 96% (181/189) of new cases among males were attributed to male-to-male sex. Among females, 95% (41/43) of new cases were attributed to heterosexual sex.
Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, male-to-male sex has been the predominant mode of exposure to HIV reported in Minnesota, although the number and proportion of new HIV infections attributed to men who have sex with men (MSM) has declined since 1991. In 1991, 70% (318/455) of new HIV infections were attributed to MSM (or MSM who also inject drugs); in 2010, this group accounted for 57% of new infections (188/331). However, current attitudes, beliefs, and unsafe sexual practices documented in surveys among MSM nationwide, and a current epidemic of syphilis among MSM documented in Minnesota and elsewhere, warrant concern. Similar to syphilis increases in other U.S. cities and abroad, 57% of the recent syphilis cases in Minnesota among MSM were co-infected with HIV, some for many years.
The number and percentage of HIV infections in Minnesota that are attributed to injection drug use has declined over the past decade for men and women, falling from 12% (54/455) of cases in 1991 to 3% (9/331) in 2010. Heterosexual contact with a partner who has or is at increased risk of HIV infection is the predominant mode of exposure to HIV for women; 92% of 218 new HIV diagnoses among women between 2008 and 2010 can be attributed to heterosexual exposure after re-distributing those with unspecified risk.
Historically, race/ethnicity data for HIV/ AIDS in Minnesota have grouped U.S.-born blacks and African-born persons together as “black.” In 2001, MDH began analyzing these groups separately, and a marked trend of increasing numbers of new HIV infections among African-born persons was observed. In 2010, there were 33 new HIV infections reported among Africans. While African-born persons comprise less than 1% of the state’s population, they accounted for 10% of all HIV infections diagnosed in Minnesota in 2010.
HIV perinatal transmission in the United States decreased 81% between 1995 and 1999. The trend in Minnesota has been similar but on a much smaller scale. While the number of births to HIV-infected women increased nearly 7-fold between 1990 and 2010, the rate of perinatal transmission decreased 6-fold, from 18% in 1990 to 1995 to 3% in 1996–2006. The overall rate of transmission for 2008 to 2010 was 1.0%; however, it was four times greater among foreign-born mothers.
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