Campylobacter continues to be the most commonly reported bacterial enteric pathogen in Minnesota (Figure 3). There were 909 culture-confirmed Campylobacter cases reported in 2013 (16.9 per 100,000 population). This is a 5% decrease from the 950 cases in 2012, but similar to the median annual number of cases reported from 2003 to 2012 (median, 903 cases; range, 843 to 1,007). In 2013, 48% of cases occurred in people who resided in the metropolitan area. Of the 862 Campylobacter isolates confirmed and identified to species by MDH, 89% were C. jejuni and 9% were C. coli.
The median age of cases was 34 years (range, 4 days to 97 years). Thirty-nine percent of cases were between 20 and 49 years of age, and 12% were 5 years of age or younger. Fifty-six percent of cases were male. Fourteen percent of cases were hospitalized; the median length of hospitalization was 3 days. Forty-nine percent of infections occurred during June through September. Of the 823 cases for whom data were available, 125 (15%) reported travel outside the United States during the week prior to illness onset. The most common travel destinations were Asia (n=35), Europe (n=35), Central or South America or the Caribbean (n=30), and Mexico (n=23).
There were two confirmed outbreaks of campylobacteriosis identified in 2013. In June, an outbreak of C. jejuni infections was associated with raw milk from a dairy in Isanti County; 3 culture-confirmed cases were identified. Also in June, an outbreak of C. jejuni infections was associated with raccoon contact at a wildlife rehabilitation center in Ramsey County; 2 culture-confirmed cases were identified.
A primary feature of public health importance among Campylobacter cases was the continued presence of Campylobacter isolates resistant to fluoroquinolone antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin), which are commonly used to treat campylobacteriosis. In 2013, the overall proportion of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter isolates tested was 26%. However, 81% of Campylobacter isolates from patients with a history of foreign travel during the week prior to illness onset, regardless of destination, were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Fifteen percent of Campylobacter isolates from patients who acquired the infection domestically were resistant to fluoroquinolones.
In June 2009, a culture-independent test became commercially available for the qualitative detection of Campylobacter antigens in stool. In 2013, 439 patients were positive for Campylobacter by a culture-independent test conducted in a clinical laboratory. However, only 157 (36%) of the specimens were subsequently culture-confirmed and therefore met the surveillance case definition for inclusion in MDH case count totals.
- For up to date information see>> Campylobacteriosis (Campylobacter)
- Full issue>> Annual Summary of Communicable Diseases Reported to the Minnesota Department of Health, 2013