Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Related to e-Health
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CDC is the federal agency charged with protecting the health and safety of U.S. citizens, both at home and abroad. It also oversees the development and application of programs for disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education.Reference: http://www.cdc.gov/
See also: PHIN, MN-PHIN
CMS is the federal agency that administers Medicare, Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). CMS, formerly known as HCFA, is part of the federal Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). CMS is the agency responsible for distributing the incentive payments related to “meaningful use” provision of the HITECH Act.Reference: http://www.cms.gov/
A certified EHR is defined as a qualified electronic health record that is certified as meeting the standards applicable to the setting (e.g. ambulatory or hospital-based) as adopted by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). The ONC selects Authorized Testing and Certification Bodies (ATCBs) to perform Complete EHR and/or EHR Module testing and certification.Reference: Current list of Certified Health IT Products: http://chpl.healthit.gov
A method of grouping clinical concepts in order to represent classes that support the generation of indicators of health status and health statistics.
Clinical Data Repository means a real time database that consolidates data from a variety of clinical sources to present a unified view of a single patient and is used by a state-certified health information exchange service provider to enable health information exchange among health care providers that are not related health care entities as defined in section 144.291, subdivision 2, paragraph (U). This does not include clinical data that are submitted to the commissioner for public health purposes required or permitted by law, including any rules adopted by the commissioner.Reference: Minnesota Statute 62J.498, Subdivision 1, paragraph (a)
CDS refers broadly to providing clinicians or patients with clinical knowledge and patient-related information, intelligently filtered or presented at appropriate times, to enhance patient care. Clinical knowledge of interest could range from simple facts and relationships to best practices for managing patients with specific disease states, new medical knowledge from clinical research and other types of information.Reference: http://www.himss.org/ASP/topics_clinicalDecision.asp
A Health Level Seven (HL7) XML-based document markup standard for the electronic exchange model for clinical documents (such as discharge summaries and progress notes). The implementation guide contains a library of CDA templates, incorporating and harmonizing previous efforts from HL7, Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise, and Health Information Technology Standards Panel (HITSP). It includes all required CDA templates for stage 1 of the “meaningful use” EHR Incentive Program and HITECH final rule. It is commonly referred to as Consolidate CDA or C-CDA.Reference: http://library.ahima.org/doc?oid=107443#.V40BhXpfBjZ
A Clinical Laboratory is a facility where tests are performed on human specimens for health assessment of a patient as pertaining to the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disease.
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulates all laboratory testing (except research) performed on humans in the U.S. through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA).Reference: https://www.cms.gov/clia/
An electronic transaction that a health care provider must execute to exchange clinical data (e.g., prescriptions, immunizations, laboratory results) for care delivery purposes. These transactions are a sub-set of Stage 1 meaningful use transactions referred to in electronic health record incentive program for Medicare and Medicaid [RIN 0938–AP78; 42 CFR Parts 412, 413, 422, and 495] and required to use the standards recommended for electronic health record technology [RIN 0991–AB58; 45 CFR Part 170] and are required to receive Medicare or Medicaid incentives or avoid Medicare penalties pursuant to sections 4101, 4102, and 4201 of the HITECH Act.
The communication among providers involved in the care process that can range from real time communication (for example, fulfillment of an injection while the patient is in the exam room), to asynchronous communication (for example, consult reports between physicians).Reference: Health Level Seven, Inc. "HL7 EHR-S Functional Model and Standard." July 2004. http://www.hl7.org/ehr/downloads/index.asp
The ability to remind clinicians to consider certain actions at a particular point in time, such as prompts to ask the patient appropriate preventive medicine questions, notifications that ordered tests have not produced results when expected, and suggestions for certain therapeutic actions, such as giving a tetanus shot if one has not been given for 10 years.Reference: eHealth Initiative Foundation. "Second Annual Survey of State, Regional and Community-based Health Information Exchange Initiatives and Organizations." Washington: eHealth Initiative Foundation, 2005.
The process used by the HIE to determine the identity of the person accessing the system with adequate certainty to maintain security and confidentiality of personal health information and to administer with certainty of identity a regulated process such as e-prescribing and chart signing.
Clinical Transaction means any meaningful use transaction or other health information exchange transaction that is not covered by section 62J.536.Reference: Minnesota Statute 62J.498, Subdivision 1, paragraph (b)
Community health assessment is a systematic examination of the health status indicators for a given population that is used to identify key problems and assets in a community. The ultimate goal of a community health assessment is to develop strategies to address the community’s health needs and identified issues. A variety of tools and processed may be used to conduct a community health assessment; the essential ingredients are community engagement and collaborative participation. (Turnock, B. Public Health: What It Is and How It Works. Jones and Bartlett, 2009). This definition of community health assessment also refers to a Tribal, state, or territorial community health assessment.Reference: http://www.phaboard.org/wp-content/uploads/FINAL_PHAB-Acronyms-and-Glossary-of-Terms-Version-1.5.pdf
Community Health Centers (CHCs) serve adults and children in rural and urban areas who experience financial, geographic or cultural barriers to care. CHCs provide primary and preventive health care, mental health services, dental services, transportation and translation services.Reference: http://bphc.hrsa.gov/about/ or http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/orhpc/shortage/fqhcsection330.html
See also: FQHC
Research designed to inform health-care decisions by providing evidence on the effectiveness, benefits, and harms of different treatment options. The evidence is generated from research studies that compare drugs, medical devices, tests, surgeries, or ways to deliver health care.Reference: http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov
CPOE is a computer application that allows a provider's orders for diagnostic and treatment services (such as medications, laboratory, and other tests) to be entered electronically instead of being recorded on order sheets or prescription pads. The computer compares the order against standards for dosing, checks for allergies or interactions with other medications, and warns the provider about potential problems.Reference: United States Department of Health and Human Services. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Glossary: http://www.hhs.gov/
A digital or hardcopy record, signed and dated by a patient or a patient's legally authorized representative, authorizing the release of a patient's electronic health records.Reference: Minnesota Health Records Act
A third party's obligation to protect the personal information with which it has been entrusted.
The field devoted to informatics from multiple consumer-patient views. These include patient focused informatics, health literacy and consumer education. The focus is on information structures and processes that empower consumers to manage their own health; for example, health information literacy, consumer-friendly language, personal health records, and Internet-based strategies and resources. The shift in this view of informatics analyses consumers' needs for information; studies and implements methods of making information accessible to consumers; and models and integrates consumers' preferences into health information systems. Consumer informatics involves the intersection of clinical informatics and public health informatics, standing at a crossroads with other disciplines, such as nursing informatics, public health, health promotion, health education, library science, and communication science.Reference: https://www.amia.org/glossary
A system of standardizing the terms used in describing client-centered health and health service-related concepts.
Continuity of Care Record (CCR) is a core data set of the most relevant administrative, demographic, and clinical information facts about a patient's healthcare, covering one or more healthcare encounters. It provides a means for one healthcare practitioner, system, or setting to aggregate all of the pertinent data about a patient and forward it to another practitioner, system, or setting to support the continuity of care. To ensure interchangeability of electronic CCRs, the standard specification specifies XML coding that is required when the CCR is created in a structured electronic format. This standard specification has been developed by ASTM International, Committee E31 on Health Informatics.Reference: http://www.astm.org/Standards/E2369.htm
CSTE is an organization of member state and territories representing public health epidemiologists. CSTE provides technical advice and assistance to partner organizations and to federal public health agencies such as the Centers fo Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Reference: http://www.cste.org/
Covered entities are defined in the HIPAA rules as (1) health plans, (2) health care clearinghouses, and (3) health care providers who electronically transmit any health information in connection with transactions for which HHS has adopted standards.Reference: https://privacyruleandresearch.nih.gov/pr_06.asp
Small rural hospitals meeting state and federal criteria were eligible to convert from traditional hospital licensure status to Critical Access Hospital (CAH) licensure status. CAHs receive higher cost-based reimbursement for Medicare services. In Minnesota, they also receive cost-based reimbursement for some Medicaid services. CAHs are also allowed greater flexibility in staffing. In return, CAHs must:
- Make emergency services available 24 hours per day
- Have no more than 25 beds
- Maintain an annual average length of stay of 96 hours or less and
- Participate in networking relationships with other health care providers.
Federal regulations required that CAHs needed to be 35 miles or more from the nearest provider, or be designated by the state as a “Necessary Provider.” As of the federal deadline of January 1, 2006, all qualifying hospitals in Minnesota had become CAHs.Reference: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/orhpc/flex/mnhospitals.html or http://www.cms.gov/MLNProducts/downloads/CritAccessHospfctsht.pdf