Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Related to e-Health
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PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications Systems): PACS are systems that acquire, transmit, store, retrieve, and display digital images and related patient information from a variety of imaging sources and communicate the information over a network.
Participating Entity: Any of the following persons, health care providers, companies, or other organizations with which a health information organization or health data intermediary has contracts or other agreements for the provision of health information exchange service providers:
- a health care facility licensed under Minn. Stat. §§144.50 to 144.56, a nursing home licensed under Minn. Stat. §§144A.02 to 144A.10,and any other health care facility otherwise licensed under the laws of Minnesota or registered with the commissioner;
- a health care provider, and any other health care professional otherwise licensed under the laws of Minnesota or registered with the commissioner;
- a group, professional corporation, or other organization that provides the services of individuals or entities identified in clause (b),including but not limited to a medical clinic, a medical group, a home health care agency, an urgent care center, and an emergent care center;
- a health plan as defined in Minn. Stat. §§62A.011, sub. 3; and
- a state agency as defined in Minn. Stat. §13.02, sub. 17.
Reference: Minn. Stat. §62J.498 sub. 1(m)
Patient Matching: The process of cross-linking the multiple patient identifiers in a community from a variety of patient identifier sources and creating a master patient identifier with a key for cross-referencing the various community identifiers. This is also referred to as a record locator service. Reference: http://www.ehealthinitiative.org/
Pay-for-Performance/Quality Data Reporting: Supports the capture and reporting of quality, performance, and accountability measures to which providers/ facilities/ delivery systems/communities are held accountable including measures related to process, outcomes, and/or costs of care, may be used in 'pay for performance' monitoring and adherence to best practice guidelines. Reference: Health Level Seven, Inc. "HL7 EHR-S Functional Model and Standard." July 2004. http://www.hl7.org/ehr/downloads/index.asp
PBM (Pharmacy Benefit Manager): A PBM is an organization that contracts with health insurance plans to manage prescription medication benefits.
PCAST (President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology): PCAST is an advisory group of the nation’s leading scientists and engineers who directly advise the President and the Executive Office of the President. PCAST makes policy recommendations in the many areas where understanding of science, technology, and innovation is key to strengthening our economy and forming policy that works for the American people. PCAST is administered by the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). Reference: http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ostp/pcast
PDA (Personal Data Assistant): A PDA is a handheld computer that offers relatively limited functionality and computing power. Often used primarily as organizers, but some PDAs offer wireless e-mail and Internet access. Increasingly used in clinical practice for applications such as taking patient notes and ordering prescriptions.
Pharmaceutical Electronic Data Intermediary: Any entity that provides the infrastructure to connect computer systems or other electronic devices utilized by prescribing practitioners with those used by pharmacies, health plans, third-party administrators, and pharmacy benefit managers in order to facilitate the secure transmission of electronic prescriptions, refill authorization requests, communications, and other prescription-related information between such entities. Reference: Minn. Stat. §62J.495 sub. 1a(c)
PHDSC (Public Health Data Standards Consortium): The Public Health Data Standards Consortium (PHDSC, The Consortium) is a national non-profit membership-based organization of federal, state, and local health agencies; professional associations, academia; public and private sector organizations; international members; and individuals. Its goal is to empower the healthcare and public health communities with health information technology standards to improve individual and community health. Reference: http://www.phdsc.org/
PHI (Protected Health Information): PHI is a term used in HIPAA meaning individually identifiable health information that is transmitted or maintained by electronic media or is transmitted or maintained in any other form or medium. "Health information" is any information relating to the past, present, or future physical or mental health or condition of an individual. The definition of PHI has moved from 45 CFR §164.501 to 45 CFR §160.103.
PHII (Public Health Informatics Institute) Reference: http://www.phii.org/
PHIN (Public Health Information Network): PHIN is CDC’s vision for advancing fully capable and interoperable information systems in the many organizations that participate in public health. PHIN is a national initiative to implement a multi-organizational business and technical architecture for public health information systems. Reference: http://www.cdc.gov/phin/ See also: Minnesota Public Health Information Network (MN-PHIN).
PHIN MS (Public Health Information Network Messaging System): The Public Health Information Network Messaging System is a service that is used for creating standards, and HL7 2.x messages, for surveillance, message exchange between laboratories, public health jurisdictions and CDC. The goal is interoperability among public health systems.
PHR (Personal Health Record): An electronic record of health-related information on an individual that conforms to nationally recognized interoperability standards and that can be drawn from multiple sources while being managed, shared, and controlled by the individual. Reference: The National Alliance for Health Information Technology Report to the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology on Defining Key Health Information
Population Health: A definition of population health is: an approach to health that aims to improve the health of an entire population. One major step in achieving this aim is to reduce health inequities among population groups. Population health seeks to step beyond the individual-level focus of mainstream medicine and public health by addressing a broad range of factors that impact health on a population level, such as environment, social structure, resource distribution, etc. An important theme in population health is importance of social determinants of health and the relatively minor impact that medicine and healthcare have on improving health overall.
Population health is “everyone’s responsibility” in contrast to public health which is the “governmental responsibility” for the health of a population. Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. Governmental public health agencies provide the backbone to the public health infrastructure, but this infrastructure is also dependent on other entities such as the health care delivery system, the public health and health sciences academia, and other sectors that are heavily engaged and more clearly identified with health activities. Public health also plays a legal regulatory role (e.g., conducting restaurant inspections).
Practice Workflow and Information Management Redesign Specialists: Individuals in this role assist in reorganizing the work of a provider to take full advantage of the features of health IT in pursuit of meaningful use of health IT to improve healthcare. Reference: http://healthit.hhs.gov/
Privacy: Right of an individual to control the circulation of information about him-/herself within social relationships; freedom from unreasonable interference in an individual's private life; an individual's right to protection of data regarding him/her against misuse or unjustified publication. Reference: http://www.ehealthinitiative.org/
Programmers and Software Engineer: Individuals in these roles will be the architects and developers of advanced health IT solutions. Reference: http://healthit.hhs.gov/
Prospective Payment Hospital (PPS): Section 1886(d) of the Social Security Act (the Act) sets forth a system of payment for the operating costs of acute care hospital inpatient stays under Medicare Part A (Hospital Insurance) based on prospectively set rates. This payment system is referred to as the inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS). Under the IPPS, each case is categorized into a diagnosis-related group (DRG). Each DRG has a payment weight assigned to it, based on the average resources used to treat Medicare patients in that DRG. Reference: https://www.cms.gov/AcuteInpatientPPS/
Protected health Information (PHI): The definition contained in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule, 45 C.F.R. 160.103.
Provider: According to the Minnesota Health Records Act, a provider means:
- (1) any person who furnishes health care services and is regulated to furnish the services under chapter 147 (Board of Medical Practice), 147A (Physician Assistants), 147B (Acupuncture Practitioners), 147C (Respiratory Care Practitioners), 147D (Traditional Midwives), 148 (Nursing and Other Public Health Occupations), 148B Social Work, Marriage and Family Therapy, Mental Health), 148C (Alcohol and Drug Counselors), 148D (Board of Social Work), 150A (Dentistry), 151 (Pharmacy), 153 (Podiatry), or 153A (Hearing Instrument Dispensing);
- (2) a home care provider licensed under section 144A.46;
- (3) a health care facility licensed under chapter 144A;
- (4) a physician assistant registered under chapter 147A; and
- (5) an unlicensed mental health practitioner regulated under sections 148B.60 to 148B.71.
Reference: MN Health Records Act, Minn. Stat. §144.291 - 144.298
Public Health: Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_health
Governmental public health agencies provide the backbone to the public health infrastructure, but this infrastructure is also dependent on other entities such as the health care delivery system, the public health and health sciences academia, and other sectors that are heavily engaged and more clearly identified with health activities. Public health also plays a legal regulatory role (e.g., conducting restaurant inspections). Reference: Adapted from the Institute of Medicine.
Public Health Informatics: Systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. Reference: Yasnoff, William A.; et al. Public Health Informatics: Improving and Transforming Public Health in the Information Age. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 2000: 67 - 75.
Public Health Informatics and Technology Program Office (PHITPO): PHITPO, part of the CDC’s Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, supports health and public health practice by advancing better management and use of information and knowledge. Reference: http://www.cdc.gov/osels/ph_informatics_technology/index.html
Public Health Leader: Individuals in this role will be able to lead the successful deployment and use of health IT to achieve transformational improvement in the quality, safety, outcomes, and thus in the value of health services. Reference: http://healthit.hhs.gov/
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): A conceptual framework that enables the encryption, decryption and electronic "signing" of data transmissions in a secure fashion within an open network environment. Reference: http://www.ehealthinitiative.org/
Public Health Outbreak Surveillance: Supports clinical health state monitoring of aggregate patient data for use in identifying health risks from the environment and/or population. Reference: Health Level Seven, Inc. "HL7 EHR-S Functional Model and Standard." July 2004. http://www.hl7.org/ehr/downloads/index.asp See also: Outbreak Surveillance