One Health Resource Library:
Antibiotics, resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes reach the environment through a variety of routes, including antibiotic use in human and animal health settings, home antibiotic use by patients with prescriptions, use of antibiotics to treat food production animals, application of antibiotics on plant agriculture, and use of antibiotics in a variety of industrial processes.
Currently, little is known about the importance of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, or antibiotic resistance genes that are detected in the environment. However, there is considerable concern about the impact of environmental contaminants on overall emergence of antibiotic resistance and human health.
- The Scientist: The Flow of Pharmaceuticals (JPG)
An image depicting the flow of pharmaceuticals.
- Antibiotic Footprint
A more detailed version on the use of antibiotics and their flow.
Presence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in the environment
- MPCA: Chemistry in Our Waters
- USGS: Antibiotics in Groundwater Affect Natural Bacteria
- USGS: Chemicals Found in Treated Wastewater are Transported from Streams to Groundwater
- USGS: Investigating the Environmental Effects of Agriculture Practices on Natural Resources (PDF)
- USGS: Transport of Antibiotics in Soil and Their Potential for Ground-Water Contamination
- Antibiotics Pollution in Soil and Water: Potential Ecological and Human Health Issues (PDF)
- Designing Safer and Greener Antibiotics
- Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes
- MDPI: Tracking Change: A Look at the Ecological Footprint of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance
Management and treatment options
- USGS: Wastewater Treatment Water Use
- Worldbank: Introduction to Wastewater Treatment Processes
- EHP: Management Options for Reducing the Release of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes to the Environment
Learn more about antibiotic stewardship
- Current State Plan Progress and Data
- U of M CIDRAP Antimicrobial Stewardship Project
Offers emerging news, online journal club, policy updates, bibliographies, and events calendar
- White House: National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (PDF)