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Last Updated: 10/03/2022
Safe Harbor Related Articles, Reports, and Publications
- Trading Sex and Sexual Exploitation among High School Students: Data from the 2019 Minnesota Student Survey
- Safe Harbor for All
- Evaluation of Helpsealmyrecord.org (PDF)
- Evaluation Reports – Safe Harbor
- MDH's Evaluation of the Minnesota's Response to Sex Trafficking During Super Bowl LII (PDF)
- Human Trafficking Informational Guide (PDF)
- Human Trafficking Informational Guide: Translated
- Ramsey County Attorney's Office and the Sexual Violence Justice Institute at the Minnesota Coalition Against Sexual Assault. (2017). Safe Harbor Protocol Guidelines.
- The Wilder Foundation (2015) Safe Harbor First Year Evaluation 2015
- The Advocates for Human Rights. (2013). Safe Harbor: Fulfilling Minnesota’s Promise to Protect Sexually Exploited Youth.
- Department of Public Safety Office of Justice. (2013). No Wrong Door: A Comprehensive Approach to Safe Harbor for Minnesota’s Sexually Exploited Youth.
- Holder-Ambrose, B. (2013). Safe Harbor Bush Fellowship: Summary Report of State Site Visits.
- Pierce, A. (2009). Shattered Hearts: the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of American Indian Women and Girls in Minnesota.
Sexual Exploitation of Youth:
- Greene, J.M., Ennett, S.T., and Ringwalt, C.L. (1999). Prevalence and correlates of survival sex among runaway and homeless youth. Am J Public Health, 89(9), 1406-1409.
- Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (2013) Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
- Martin, L. & Lotspeich, R. (2014). A benefit-cost framework for early intervention to prevent sex trading. Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, 5(1), 43-87. DOI: 10.1515/jbca-2013-0021
- Mitchell, K.J., Jones, L.M., Finkelhor, D., and Wolak, J. (2011), Internet-Facilitated Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: Findings From a Nationally Representative Sample of Law Enforcement Agencies in the United States. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 23, 43-71. DOI: 10.1177/1079063210374347
- Reid, J.A. (2011). An Exploratory Model of Girls’ vulnerability to Commercial Sexual Exploitation in Prostitution. Child Maltreatment, 16, 146. DOI: 10.1177/1077559511404700
- Saewyc EM, MacKay LJ, Anderson J, and Drozda C. (2008). It’s not what you think: Sexually exploited youth in British Columbia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia School of Nursing.
- Tyler, K.A. (2009). Risk Factors for Trading Sex among Homeless Young Adults. Arch Sex Behav. 38, 290-297. DOI 10.1007/s10508-007-9201-4
- Williams, L.M. & Frederick, M.E. (2009). Pathways into and out of commercial sexual victimization of children: Understanding and responding to sexually exploited teens. Lowell, MA: University of Massachusetts Lowell.
Sexual Exploitation of Adults:
- Martin, L., Hearst, M. and Windome, R. (2010). Meaningful Differences: Comparison of Adult Women Who First Traded Sex as a Juvenile versus as an Adult. Violence Against Women, 16(11), 1252-69.
- Reid, J.A. (2012). Exploratory review of route-specific, gendered, and age-graded dynamics of exploitation: Applying life course theory to victimization in sex trafficking in North America. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(3), 257-271.
- Sanders, T. (2007). Becoming an Ex-Sex Worker: Making Transitions Out of a Deviant Career. Feminist Criminology. 2(1), 74-95. DOI: 10.1177/1557085106294845
- Williamson, C. & Baker, L.M. (2009). Women in Street-based Prostitution: A typology of their Work Styles. Qualitative Social Work. 8,27. DOI: 10.1177/1473325008100420
State Responses/Legal Perspectives:
- Birckhead, T.R. (2011). The ‘Youngest Profession’: Consent, Autonomy, and Prostituted Children. Washington University Law Review. 88(5), 1055- 1115.
- Cedeno, M. (2012). Pimps, Johns, and Juvenile Prostitutes: Is New York doing enough to combat the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children? Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy. 22, 153-179.
- Crile, S. (2011). A Minor Conflict: Why the Objectives of Federal Sex Trafficking Legislation Preempt the Enforcement of State Prostitution Laws Against Minors. American University Law Review. 61, 1783-1824.
- Heiges, M. (2009). From the Inside Out: Reforming State and Local Prostitution Enforcement to Combat Sex Trafficking in the United States and Abroad. Minnesota Law Review. 94, 428- 466.
- LaMura, E. (2013). Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: State Legislative Response Models. Children Legal Rights Journal. 33, 301-347.
- Leary, M.G. (2007). Self-Produced Child Pornography: The Appropriate Societal Response to Juvenile Self-Sexual Exploitation. Virginia Journal of Social Policy and Law. 15, 1-50.
- Mir, T. (2013). Trick or Treat: Why Minors Engaged in Prostitution Should be Treated as Victims, Not Criminals. Family Court Review. 51(1), 163-177.
- Rocha, P.A. (2012). Our Backyard Slave Trade: The Result of Ohio’s Failure to Enact Comprehensive State-Level Human Sex Trafficking Legislation. Journal of Law and Health. 25, 381-417.
Practical Implications and Interventions:
- Edinburgh, L.D. & Saewyc, E.M. (2009). A Novel, Intensive Home-Visiting Intervention for Runaway, Sexually Exploited Girls. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 14(1), 41-48.
- Grace, L.G., Starck, M., Potenza, J., Kenney, P.A., and Sheetz, A.H. (2012). Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the School Nurse. The Journal of School Nursing, 28(6), 410-417. DOI: 10.1177/1059840512448402
- Hardy, V.L., Compton, K.D., and McPhatter, V.S. (2013). Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: Practice Implications for Mental Health Professionals. Journal of Women and Social Work. 28 (1), 8-18.
- Hickle, K.E. & Roe-Sepowitz, D.E. (2014). Putting the Pieces Back Together: A Group Intervention for Sexually Exploited Adolescent Girls. Social Work with Groups, 37 (2), 99-113. DOI: 10.1080/01609513.2013.823838.
- Jordan, J., Patel, B., and Rapp, L. (2013). Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: A Social Work Perspective on Misidentification, Victims, Buyers, Traffickers, Treatment, and Reform of Current Practice. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 23(3), 356-369. DOI: 10.1080/10911359.2013.764198
- Kennedy, A.C., Agbenyiga, D.L., Kasiborski, N., and Gladden, J. (2010). Risk chains over the life course among homeless urban adolescent mothers: Altering their trajectories through formal support. Child and Youth Services Review, 32, 1740-1749. DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.07.018
- Macy, R. J. & Graham, L.M. (2012). Identifying Domestic and International Sex-Trafficking Victims During Human Service Provision. Trauma Violence Abuse, 13(2), 59-76. DOI: 10.1177/1524838012440340.
- Reid, J.A. (2010). Doors Wide Shut: Barriers to Successful Delivery of Victim Services for Domestically Trafficked Minors in a Southern U.S. Metropolitan Area. Women and Criminal Justice, 20 (1-2), 147-166. DOI: 10.1080/08974451003641206