Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Related to e-Health
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Any of the following persons, health care providers, companies, or other organizations with which a health information organization or health data intermediary has contracts or other agreements for the provision of health information exchange services:
- a health care facility licensed under sections 144.50 to 144.56, a nursing home licensed under sections 144A.02 to 144A.10, and any other health care facility otherwise licensed under the laws of this state or registered with the commissioner;
- a health care provider, and any other health care professional otherwise licensed under the laws of this state or registered with the commissioner;
- a group, professional corporation, or other organization that provides the services of individuals or entities identified in clause (2), including but not limited to a medical clinic, a medical group, a home health care agency, an urgent care center, and an emergent care center;
- a health plan as defined in section 62A.011, subdivision 3; and
- a state agency as defined in section 13.02, subdivision 17.
Two or more records in a database that have been identified through an electronic or manual process, as potentially containing information about the same individual; an initial match may require further validation.
Patient record matching is the process of comparing patient information in different health records to determine if the records refer to the same patient. This matching generally relies on the use of demographic information, defined here as including demographic and personally identifiable information, such as a patient’s name, date of birth (DOB), sex, Social Security number (SSN), or address, among other information.
A patient portal is a secure online website that gives patients convenient, 24-hour access to personal health information from anywhere with an Internet connection. Using a secure username and password, patients can view health information such as:
- Recent doctor visits
- Discharge summaries
- Lab results
Patient Portal. A patient portal is a secure website where patients can access their medical history and other health information. Using the portal, patients can typically complete forms online, communicate with clinicians, request prescription refills, pay bills, review lab results, and schedule appointments.
A personal health record, or PHR, is an electronic application through which patients can maintain and manage their health information (and that of others for whom they are authorized) in a private, secure, and confidential environment.
An electronic record of health-related information on an individual that conforms to nationally recognized interoperability standards and that can be drawn from multiple sources while being managed, shared, and controlled by the individual.
Reference: The National Alliance for Health Information Technology Report to the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology on Defining Key Health Information
Any entity that provides the infrastructure to connect computer systems or other electronic devices utilized by prescribing practitioners with those used by pharmacies, health plans, third-party administrators, and pharmacy benefit managers in order to facilitate the secure transmission of electronic prescriptions, refill authorization requests, communications, and other prescription-related information between such entities.
Reference: Minn. Stat. §62J.495 sub. 1a(c)
An organization that contracts with health insurance plans to manage prescription medication benefits.
A definition of population health is: an approach to health that aims to improve the health of an entire population. One major step in achieving this aim is to reduce health inequities among population groups. Population health seeks to step beyond the individual-level focus of mainstream medicine and public health by addressing a broad range of factors that impact health on a population level, such as environment, social structure, resource distribution, etc. An important theme in population health is importance of social determinants of health and the relatively minor impact that medicine and healthcare have on improving health overall.
Population health is “everyone’s responsibility” in contrast to public health which is the “governmental responsibility” for the health of a population. Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. Governmental public health agencies provide the backbone to the public health infrastructure, but this infrastructure is also dependent on other entities such as the health care delivery system, the public health and health sciences academia, and other sectors that are heavily engaged and more clearly identified with health activities. Public health also plays a legal regulatory role (e.g., conducting restaurant inspections).
Population Health Management. Population health management describes an approach to care delivery that is designed to help the individuals in a defined population avoid illness as well as to treat their illnesses when they occur. For example, population health management services include proactive efforts to ensure individuals receive preventive screenings, and to help them improve their health, to help them manage chronic conditions effectively. The “population” whose health is managed is a group of individuals who are defined or selected in some way other than through them seeking services to address health problems, e.g., a population could be all of the employees of an employer, all of the residents of a community, or all of the members of a health insurance plan.
See: Electronic Prior Authorization
Right of an individual to control the circulation of information about him-/herself within social relationships; freedom from unreasonable interference in an individual's private life; an individual's right to protection of data regarding him/her against misuse or unjustified publication.
HIPAA Privacy Rule
Privacy, Security and Breach
The Privacy Rule sets the standards for, among other things, who may have access to PHI, while the Security Rule sets the standards for ensuring that only those who should have access to EPHI will actually have access. NOTE: The Security Rule applies only to electronic protected health information (EPHI), while the Privacy Rule applies to protected health information (PHI) which may be in electronic, oral, and paper form.
CMS- HIPAA Basics for Providers: Privacy, Security and Breach Notifications
The Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs (formerly referred to as meaningful use) to encourage clinicians, eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals to adopt, implement, upgrade, and demonstrate meaningful use of certified EHR technology.
As defined in 45 C.F.R. 160.103
Protected Health Information. The Privacy Rule protects all "individually identifiable health information" held or transmitted by a covered entity or its business associate, in any form or media, whether electronic, paper, or oral. The Privacy Rule calls this information "protected health information (PHI)."12
"Individually identifiable health information” is information, including demographic data, that relates to:
- the individual’s past, present or future physical or mental health or condition,
- the provision of health care to the individual, or
- the past, present, or future payment for the provision of health care to the individual,
and that identifies the individual or for which there is a reasonable basis to believe it can be used to identify the individual.13 Individually identifiable health information includes many common identifiers (e.g., name, address, birth date, Social Security Number).
According to the Minnesota Health Records Act, a provider means:
- (1) any person who furnishes health care services and is regulated to furnish the services under chapter 147 (Board of Medical Practice), 147A (Physician Assistants), 147B (Acupuncture Practitioners), 147C (Respiratory Care Practitioners), 147D (Traditional Midwives), 148 (Nursing and Other Public Health Occupations), 148B Social Work, Marriage and Family Therapy, Mental Health), 148C (Alcohol and Drug Counselors), 148D (Board of Social Work), 150A (Dentistry), 151 (Pharmacy), 153 (Podiatry), or 153A (Hearing Instrument Dispensing);
- (2) a home care provider licensed under section 144A.46;
- (3) a health care facility licensed under chapter 144A;
- (4) a physician assistant registered under chapter 147A; and
- (5) an unlicensed mental health practitioner regulated under sections 148B.60 to 148B.71.
Reference: MN Health Records Act, Minn. Stat. §144.291 - 144.298
Systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning.
Reference: Yasnoff, William A.; et al. Public Health Informatics: Improving and Transforming Public Health in the Information Age. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 2000: 67 - 75.
CDC’s definition - PHIN is a national initiative to implement a multi-organizational business and technical architecture for public health information systems.
See Also: Minnesota Public Health Information Network (MN-PHIN)
The Public Health Information Network Messaging System is a service that is used for creating standards, and HL7 2.x messages, for surveillance, message exchange between laboratories, public health jurisdictions and CDC.