Medical Cannabis Review Articles and Reports on Endocannabinoid System and Endocannabinoids
An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: A review of clinical data and relevant animal studies
Iffland K and Grotenhermen F. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2018;2.1:139-154.
This article updates the review by Bergamashi et al in 2011. It has a detailed section on animal studies, highlighting important differences between humans and animals in bioavailability and the fact that dosages in animal studies are often much larger than doses administered to humans. The article’s review of acute and chronic impact of CBD administration in humans re-affirms the good safety profile reported in the Bergamschi et al review. There are some clinically significant CBD-drug interactions (especially clobazam and some other anti-epileptics) and some indication that CBD can have an effect on liver function in some patients. Most common side effects are tiredness, diarrhea and changes in appetite/weight.
Information for Health Care Professionals: Cannabis and the cannabinoids (PDF)
Health Canada. February, 2013.
Endocannabinoid system, clinical pharmacology, dosing, potential therapeutic uses (by condition), precautions, warnings, adverse effects, and overdose/toxicity.
Handbook of Cannabis
Roger G Pertwee, Oxford University Press, 2014. 747 pages.
- Constituents, History, International Control, Cultivation, and Phenotypes of Cannabis
- Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, and Forensics
- Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Clinical Data
- Approved Therapeutic Targets for Phytocannabinoids: Preclinical Pharmacology
- Some Potential Therapeutic Targets for Phytocannabinoids
- Recreational Cannabis: Sought-After Effects, Adverse Effects, Designer Drugs, and Harm Minimization
The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis
Borgelt LM, Franson KL, Nussbaum AM, Wang GS. Pharmacotherapy 2013;33(2):195-209
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics (smokes and orally ingested) of cannabis, clinical effects (focusing on pain and muscle spasm), adverse effects and drug interactions, psychiatric implications, and pediatric implications.
Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines
Robson PJ. Drug Test Anal 2014 Jan-Feb;6(1-2):24-30.
Overview of endocannabinoid system, pharmacoactive components of cannabis and clinical conditions where there is some evidence of therapeutic potential for cannabis. The author is associated with GW Pharmaceuticals, a public company that is researching and developing a portfolio of cannabinoid medicines.
The endocannabinoid system: an overview
Battista N, Di Tommaso M, Bari M, Maccarrone M. Front Behav Neurosci 2012;6:9.
Short, technical, well-written overview of human cannabinoids, their receptors, and cell signaling caused by cannabinoids binding to receptors. Briefly discusses physiological actions of the endocannabinoid system and therapeutic perspectives.
Current Status and Prospects for Cannabidiol Preparations as New Therapeutic Agents
Fasinu PS, Phillips S, ElSohly MA, Walker LA. Pharmacotherapy 2016;36:781-796.
Review article that provides an overview of the pharmacology and toxicology of cannabidiol (CBD), summarizes some of the regulatory, safety, and cultural issues relevant to further exploitation of its antiepileptic or other pharmacologic activities, and assesses the current status and prospects for clinical development of CBD and CBD-rich preparations for medical use in the United States. Includes a summary listing of clinical trials of cannabis products listed in Clinicaltrials.gov. The authors are U of Mississippi faculty associated with that institution’s National Center for Natural Products Research.
Does Cannabidiol Protect Against Adverse Psychological Effects of THC?
Niesink RJM, Laer MW. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC? Front Psychiatry 2013 Oct 16;4:130. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00130.
Review of studies related to safety of cannabidiol (CBD) and possible role of CBD in protecting against negative psychological effects of THC. From the conclusion section, “The few studies that exist on the effects of CBD show that this cannabinoid can counteract some of the negative effects of THC, although their results have not always been consistent.”
The legal status of cannabis (marijuana) and cannabidiol (CBD) under U.S. Law
Mead A. The legal status of cannabis (marijuana) and cannabidiol (CBD) under U.S. law. Epilepsy & Behavior 2017;70:288-291.
Concise, well-written description of current U.S. federal legal status of cannabis and CBD. Current as of August 2016. The last section describes the likelihood – and process – that cannabis or CBD will be rescheduled under the Controlled Substances Act.
Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications
Pisanti S, Malfitano AM, Ciaglia E, Lamberti A, et al. Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2017;175:133-150.
Detailed description of mechanism of action, biologic effects, and evidence for therapeutic potential. The short discussion of policy at the end deals with European regulatory issues (not American).
The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation
Turcotte C, Blanchet M, Laviolette MR, Flamand N. The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation. Cell Mol Life Sci 2016;73:4449-4470.
This detailed article covers where in the body the CB2 receptor is expressed, CB2 signaling mechanisms, and its potential as a therapeutic target – focusing on rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease.