Causes and Symptoms of Cholera
Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe.
Cholera has been very rare in industrialized nations for the last 100 years; however, the disease is still common today in other parts of the world, including the Indian subcontinent and sub-Saharan Africa.
Although cholera can be life-threatening, it is easily prevented and treated. In the United States, because of advanced water and sanitation systems, cholera is not a major threat; however, everyone, especially travelers, should be aware of how the disease is transmitted and what can be done to prevent it.
- watery diarrhea
- leg cramps
The infection is often mild or without symptoms.
- Approximately one in 20 infected persons has severe disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps.
- In these persons, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours.
A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces of an infected person. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.
The cholera bacterium may also live in the environment in brackish rivers and coastal waters. Shellfish eaten raw have been a source of cholera, and a few persons in the United States have contracted cholera after eating raw or undercooked shellfish from the Gulf of Mexico. The disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another; therefore, casual contact with an infected person is not a risk for becoming ill.
Persons who develop severe diarrhea and vomiting in countries where cholera occurs should seek medical attention promptly.
CDC: Cholera (Vibrio cholerae)
CDC fact sheet that answers some common questions about Vibrio cholerae.
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